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Full text of "Moving millions [microform], the pageant of modern India"

Minivers it^ of Chicago 
KH bra vies 





Ewing Galloway, N. Y. 

THE TAJ MAHAL AT AGRA, INDIA, HAS BEEN CALLED THE 
MOST PERFECT GEM OF ARCHITECTURE EVER CONSTRUCTED 



MOVING MILLIONS 

The Pageant of Modern India 



GERTRUDE L. WARNER 
BISHOP J. WASKOM PICKETT 

ALICE B. VAN DOREN 

BELLE CHONE OLIVER, M.D. 

LYMAN B. CARRUTHERS, M.D. 

C. HERBERT RICE 

MARY C. RICE 

THE RT. REV. V. S. AZARIAH 
E. STANLEY JONES 

INTRODUCTION BY ROBERT E. SPEER 



BOSTON 

THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE ON THE 
UNITED STUDY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 

and 

THE MISSIONARY EDUCATION MOVEMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 



MOVING MILLIONS 

The Pageant of Modern India 



GERTRUDE L. WARNER 
BISHOP J. WASKOM PICKETT 

ALICE B. VAN DOREN 

BELLE CHONE OLIVER, M.D. 

LYMAN B. CARRUTHERS, M.D. 

C. HERBERT RICE 

MARY C. RICE 

THE RT. REV. V. S. AZARIAH 
E. STANLEY JONES 

INTRODUCTION BY ROBERT E. SPEER 



BOSTON 

THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE ON THE 
UNITED STUDY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 

and 

THE MISSIONARY EDUCATION MOVEMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 



/32GST 



COPYRIGHT 1938 

BY THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE ON 
THE UNITED STUDY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 



T V 

- _- ?. 






PRINTED BY THE VERMONT PRINTING COMPANY, BRATTLEBORO 
MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



I 

GERTRUDE LEGGETT WARNER was born in Mississippi and the flavor 
of the southern pines is still in her racy speech. Educated along with Bishop 
Pickett and Stanley Jones at Asbury College, no one expected her to become 
a missionary. She seemed to be too much in love with life, its beauty and joy. 
But she found new joy and beauty when she married Dr. A. N. Warner and 
went with him to India as a "girl bride" at the age of eighteen. For twenty- 
eight years they have filled various places in the Marathi field of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. While mothering four delightful children, she has 
kept close to the soul of India through intuitive sympathy and through 
study of contemporaneous events in these stirring years. 

II 

BISHOP J. WASKOM PICKETT is the authority on mass movements. He 
began his missionary work in India as pastor and district superintendent in 
areas where these movements were taking place. In 1928 the National 
Christian Council, with the assistance of the Institute of Social and Re- 
ligious Research of New York, initiated a comprehensive and thorough study 
of mission work in selected sections of the country where people had become 
Christians in groups and by the hundreds. Dr. Pickett was chosen as the 
director of the research, and his book Christian Mass Movements in India 
is a report of that study. In 1936 he was elected Bishop by the Central Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Southern Asia, and assigned 
to the Bombay area. 

Ill 

ALICE BOUCHER VAN DOREN graduated in 1903 from Mt. Holyoke 
College, and in October of the same year sailed for India. Her graduate 
work in education was done at Teachers College, Columbia University, dur- 
ing furloughs. Her first two terms in India were spent in educational work 
under the Reformed Church in America in Ranipettai, South India. During 
her third and fourth terms she served as acting principal of St. Christopher 
Training College, Madras, in whose support eleven missionary boards are 
now cooperating, and spent several years as principal of the Sherman School 
in Chittoor. Seven years spent as educational secretary of the National Chris- 
tian Council, gave wide opportunities for travel in India, Burma and Ceylon. 
Miss Van Doren has written, edited and contributed to a number of books, 
among them two published by the Central Committee on the United Study 
of Foreign Missions Lighted to Lighten and Christ Comes to the Village. 

IV 

BELLE CHONE OLIVER, M.D., graduated in medicine in 1900 from the 
University of Toronto and, after an interneship in the Women's Hospital, 
Philadelphia, she went to India under the Foreign Mission Board of what 
is now the United Church of Canada. During her first two terms she served 
in different stations, and in 1915 was sent to open up medical work in 
Benswara, S. Rajputana, where the mission began work among the aborigi- 
nals, the Bhils. After serving in various capacities that gave her personal 
knowledge of medical work in India, and attending the Jerusalem Conference 



as a delegate, she became in 1933 the first full time secretary of the Chris- 
tian Medical Association of India. 

LYMAN B. CARRUTHERS, M.D., is a Canadian by birth and education. 
After serving for two years on the faculty of Cornell University, he was ap- 
pointed a medical missionary to India under the Presbyterian Board in the 
U. S. A. He is Dean of the medical school at Miraj in the Bombay Presi- 
dency. He and his associates take great pride in the record of the young 
Indian doctors, many of them from low-caste families, who have gone out 
from this school. 



REV. C. HERBERT RICE, D.D., is a graduate of Wooster College, Ohio, 
and Auburn Theological Seminary. He was for twenty-three years con- 
nected with Forman Christian College, Lahore. He is now principal of 
Allahabad Christian College, a Presbyterian institution for young men and 
boys, including Ewing Christian College, University College, the Alla- 
habad Agricultural Institute and Jumna High School. 
MRS. MARY COMPTON RICE is also a graduate of Wooster College 
and has been in India since 1913. One of her special interests is a great class 
of eighty men, women and children most of whom belong to the "Depressed 
Classes." This class, which crowds her home and verandas every Sunday, 
is an amazing demonstration of the dramatic movement taking place today 
amongst these people. 

VI 

THE RT. REV. V. S. AZARIAH, BISHOP OF DORNAKAL, is the son 
of a Hindu Untouchable who was converted to Christianity and became a 
clergyman. The well educated son worked for thirteen years as South 
India secretary of the Y. M. C. A. and later offered himself for direct mis- 
sionary work in the wilderness of Dornakal. The English Church decid; 
ing to install an Indian bishop, Dr. Azariah was consecrated first Bishop 
of Dornakal on December 29th, 1912, in St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta. 
During the early days in Dornakal he lived in a tent, and later he and his 
wife brought up their family in a two room cottage. Bishop Azariah has 
traveled extensively in India, Australia, New Zealand, Europe and Amer- 
ica. The University of Cambridge conferred on him the degree of LL.D. 
Honoris Causa. 

VII 

REV. E. STANLEY JONES, D.D., first served in India as pastor and Dis- 
trict Superintendent in the Methodist Episcopal Mission. He was called into 
a wider field of service as evangelist to the educated and student classes of 
the land. Following this he accepted invitations to take the message to the 
United States, South America, Europe, Africa and China, until now his 
dynamic Christ-centered personality is known around the world. The books 
which he has written also reveal that vital divine touch so characteristic of 
his message. During the summer holidays he conducts an Ashram in the 
Himalaya Mountains where representatives of all groups and classes of 
people gather for refreshment of body, mind and spirit. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS 3 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 9 

INTRODUCTION 10 

POEM WITH OPEN HEART 12 



CHAPTER ONE 
THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 

GEORGE V ENTERS THE GATEWAY 13 

TWENTY-SIX YEARS LATER 15 

INDIA BECOMING A NATION 19 

THE PERIOD OF GREATEST BRITISH INFLUENCE 20 

AGITATION FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT 22 

CONFLICTING VIEWPOINTS 24 

THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 25 

THE NEW CONSTITUTION 27 

OUTSTANDING LEADERS 29- 

INDIAN WOMEN IN THE NEW DAY 32 

PEACEFUL PICKETING 35 

INFLUENTIAL WOMEN 36 

GREAT RELIGIOUS PROBLEMS 39 . 



CHAPTER TWO 
THE UNTOUCHABLES 

WHY "UNTOUCHABLES"? 43 

WHAT IT MEANS To BE AN UNTOUCHABLE 44 

THE ORIGINS OF UNTOUCHABILITY 45 

EFFECT OF OCCUPATIONAL RESTRICTIONS 47 

NOT DISTINGUISHED BY DIRT, STUPIDITY OR VICE 48 

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF UNTOUCHABLES 49 

NUMBERS AND LOCATION 51 

THE HINDU RELIGION AND UNTOUCHABIHTY 53 

REVOLTS 55 

MISSIONARY POLICY 57 

GROUP RESPONSE 58 

THE POWER OF PREACHING 59 

TRANSFORMATION OF UNTOUCHABLES 60 

ASSETS OF THE NATION 61 

THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN MASS MOVEMENTS 62 

MR. GANDHI AND CHRISTIAN CONVERSION 64 



PAGE 

THE EMERGENCE OF DR. AMBEDKAR 66 

DISILLUSIONMENT 67 

THE FIGHT FOR A SHARE IN LAW-MAKING 69 

AN EXPERIENCE WITH PRAYER 70 

RELIGION CONDEMNED AND RELIGION REQUIRED _j 70 

SOULS FOR AUCTION? 71 

THE GREAT DECISION 72 

THE CHRISTIAN PROSPECT 73 



CHAPTER THREE 
INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 

DRASTIC CHANGES IN VILLAGE LIFE 77 

LEADERS OF CHANGING CONDITIONS 78 

NEEDS OF VILLAGE LIFE: LITERACY 81 

VILLAGE SCHOOLS 83 

ADULT EDUCATION 85 

SANITATION AND HEALTH 88 

ECONOMIC UPLIFT 89 

AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS 90 

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES 92 

COOPERATIVE MARKETING 93 

AN INDIAN CHRISTIAN VILLAGE 94 

UPLIFT OF RURAL WOMEN 96 

THE NEED OF CHRISTIAN FAITH 97 

STRIKING RESULTS IN LEADERSHIP 99 



CHAPTER FOUR 

THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 

THE SCUDDER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 102 

EARLY WOMEN DOCTORS 104 

MEDICAL COMPETITION: AMERICA OR INDIA? 105 

GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES 107 

WIDE-SPREAD MEDICAL MISSIONS 109 

ZENANA HOSPITALS 111 

EVANGELISTIC WORK IN HOSPITALS 113 

HIGHER HEALTH STANDARDS 114 

THE LEPERS OF INDIA 115 

TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS 118 

MEDICAL PIONEERING 119 

PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS 120 

THE NURSING PROFESSION 122 

THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE MEDICAL TRAINING 123 

INDIAN CHRISTIAN DOCTORS 127 

RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDICAL MISSIONS 128 

WIDE OPPORTUNITIES 129 



CHAPTER FIVE 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 

PAGE 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS AND EDUCATIONAL PIONEERING 131 

BEGINNINGS OF AN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 133 

EDUCATIONAL PIONEERS 134 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA TODAY 135 

INDIAN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP 136 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION FOR WOMEN 138 

NEW EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION FOR GIRLS 140 

EXAMPLES OF CHRISTIAN COLLEGES FOR WOMEN 141 

IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN'S COLLEGES 145 

COEDUCATION 146 

PROMINENT WOMEN 147 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION 149 

THE LINDSAY COMMISSION 149 

THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS 151 

CENTERS OF CHRISTIAN LIFE AND SERVICE 154 

DESIRE FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 156 

THE STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 157 

WHY MAINTAIN CHRISTIAN COLLEGES IN INDIA? 159 

A STATESMAN'S ESTIMATE 161 

CHAPTER SIX 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 

A VILLAGE CHURCH 165 

STAGES OF MISSIONARY WORK 167 

THE INDIAN CHURCH DEFINED 170 

ORGANI2ATION 174 

ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATIONS 176 

INDIAN LEADERSHIP 178 

THE CHURCH IN INDIAN Civic LIFE 180 

CHRISTIAN LITERACY 181 

CHRISTIAN GIVING 182 

MOVEMENTS TOWARDS UNITY 185 

FELLOWSHIP AND COOPERATION 188 

SPIRITUAL LIFE AND WITNESS-BEARING . 189 

MISSIONARY WORK OF THE INDIAN CHURCH 192 



CHAPTER SEVEN 
PACING THE FUTURE TASK 

THE CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO INDIA 196 

THE MISSIONARY APPROACH TO THE WEST 209 

STATISTICAL TABLES 217 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 

INDEX 223 

7 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING 
PAGE 

The Taj Mahal at Agra, India, Has Been Called the Most Perfect 
Gem of Architecture Ever Constructed Frontispiece 

A Procession of a Maharaja in India 16 

Women Picket Bombay Council Elections 17 

Typical Outcaste Section of an Indian Village 64 

A Sunday School for Non-Christian Children in Tanners Village, 

Nipani 65 

Modern Methods of Ploughing. Agricultural Institute, Allahabad, 

India 80 

Sangli Movable School All Loaded 81 

Patients Arriving at the Hospital, Kasganj, India 128 

The General Ward (interior) the Union Mission Tuberculosis Sani- 

torium, Arogyavarum, in South India 129 

The Student Body on the Campus of the Lucknow Christian College, 

India 144 

In the Booksellers' Bazaar, Lucknow 145 

The Right Reverend V. S. Azariah, D.D., Bishop of Dornakal 192 

Village Worship Platform at Arthala, Ghazeabad District 193 

Dr. E. Stanley Jones with Two Nationalist Leaders Who Are Wear- 
ing the Gandhi Cap 208 

All Saints' Memorial Church, Peshawar 209 

8 



INTRODUCTION 

NOWHERE else in condensed and yet adequate 
form can any such account of present day India 
be found as is presented in this little book. The 
writers are all sympathetic friends of India, loving India 
so much that they are giving their lives to her service. 
They know the conditions of which they write and they 
set forth in an absolutely trustworthy way the present 
situation of India's more than three hundred million 
people. Their account of the political situation is more 
hopeful than it could have been one or two years ago. 
And the stir among the Untouchables and the steady 
growth of the Church give evidence of the greatness of 
the missionary opportunity. 

Indeed the door of opportunity for Christianity never 
was more open in India in the past and it is more open 
than in any other land in the world today. There is no 
abridgement of religious liberty by law. The caste sys- 
tem, social pressure, the communal system of elections, 
the constraint of religious traditionalism and economic 
conditions hamper a free response to the appeal of the 
Gospel, but these moral and social hindrances cannot 
invoke any legal prohibition to the free preaching of 
Christianity and to its free acceptance. It is clear, more- 
over, that these millions are in reality moving. Already 

9 



the profoundest changes have taken place. The deepest 
and greatest of all changes is yet to take place in India's 
acceptance of Christ. 

Long ago the voice of Keshab Chunder Sen of the 
Brahmo Samaj proclaimed what would some day occur. 
When in 1879 he delivered his address on "Who is 
Christ?" he declared that India was "destined to become 
Christian" and "could not escape her destiny." And then 
he added, "Gentlemen, you cannot deny that your hearts 
have been touched, conquered and subjugated by a 
higher power. That power, need I tell you, is Christ. It 
is Christ who rules British India, not the British govern- 
ment. None but Jesus, none but Jesus, none but Jesus 
ever dreamed this bright, this precious diadem, India, 
and Jesus shall have it." 

Contemporary voices are saying as much. A modern 
leader of the Brahmo Samaj declares, "There is no one 
else seriously bidding for the heart of the world except 
Jesus Christ. There is no one else on the field." 

May the study of this book not only give to its readers 
a reliable and sympathetic picture of the India of today 
but may it also lead many of them to give their lives to 
India's evangelization and Christian service. 

ROBERT E. SPEER. 



10 



MOVING MILLIONS 



WITH OPEN HEART 

Freedom! Freedom! Freedom! 

To the Pariahs, to the Tiyas, to the Pulayas, 1 Freedom! 

To the Paravas, to the Kuravas, to the Maravas, Freedom! 

Come let us labour, all, 

Sparing naught and hurting none, 

Walking in the way of truth and light. 

There shall be none of low degree, 
And none shall be oppressed. 
Born in India all are of noble birth. 
Wealth and learning may they flourish 
With joy of mind! Let us live 
Like brothers all alike. 

Perish ignorance 

In man and woman alike! 

No more subordination, 

In every walk of life, equality! 

Man and woman shall equal be 

In this land of ours. 

Freedom! Freedom! Freedom! 

To the Pariahs, to the Tiyas, to the Pulayas, Freedom! 

To the Paravas, the Kuravas, to the Maravas, Freedom! 

SUBRAHAMANYAM BHARATI. 

Translated from the Tamil. 
1 Names of particular castes low down in the social scale. 



12 




CHAPTER I 

THE MIRACLE OF MODERN 
INDIA 

By GERTRUDE L. WARNER 

OMBAY the beautiful!" The wonderful natural 
harbor is generously dotted with picturesque is- 
lands. Innumerable ships laden with the produce 
and odors o Colombo, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, 
Liverpool, New York, Amsterdam, Sydney, San Fran- 
cisco, yes, of the whole world, are handling cargo at her 
great modern docks. Her shore is edged with buildings 
of architectural beauty. 

GEORGE V ENTERS THE GATEWAY 
Stand with me, and let us consider the miracle of mod- 
ern India as we look back to December 2, 1911, when as 
a very young and enthusiastic missionary I stood over- 
looking this gateway of India. 

A cloudless sky; the sea, rippled with laughter by the 
slightest of breezes, glistens, sparkles and dances with 
the glee of festive preparations, for King George V and 
Queen Mary, as the first reigning British sovereigns ever 
to visit India, are landing on our shores today to be pro- 
claimed Emperor and Empress of India. 

13 



14 MOVING MILLIONS 

What splendor! What pageantry! It would be dif- 
ficult to decide which people more truly love or more 
ably present dignified and impressive pageantry the 
English or the Indian. Combine the two and you have the 
most colorful processions and ceremonies that this world 
has ever seen. 

Throughout the city great arches, representative of the 
history of the people and their industries, have been con- 
structed. Through the generosity particularly of the 
wealthier Parsee citizens, aided by the animated spirit 
and help of the entire population, funds have been raised 
for the elaborate decoration and illumination of the city. 
As we look from our vantage point, we see a pavilion 
constructed in the Saracenic style, dazzling white, tempo- 
rarily erected for the reception of their Majesties. 

Many of the notables of India are assembled. Central 
among them is His Excellency the Viceroy, second only 
in his exalted position to the King-Emperor himself. We 
see also the Governor of Bombay, his bodyguard re- 
splendent in scarlet and gold; officers of the royal Indian 
navy and the royal Indian marine in their smartest uni- 
forms; the highest officials of the civil and military 
regime; the diplomatic representatives of the world in 
their varied and brilliant uniforms. The English police 
force are on duty wearing their white helmets and 
starched white uniforms into which it looks as if they 
themselves had been starched and ironed. Their Indian 
associates, in their blue and yellow uniforms, are no less 
impressive. 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 15 

Far more imposing and picturesque is that large group 
representative of the aristocracy and intelligentsia of 
India: wealthy Parsees and Brahmans from the various 
provinces representative of the great Hindu India. In- 
fluential Mohammedans, Jews, Sikhs and Christians are 
generously enough sprinkled throughout the crowd to 
emphasize these strong influential minorities which are 
destined to play such an important part in the maze of 
Indian politics. 

The Indian ladies from the different religious groups, 
each attired after the fashion of the area from which 
she comes, and their men folk in their turbans and varied 
headdress of rich royal colors, add a rainbow touch and 
charm to the occasion. A handsome Rajput prince with 
his colorful suite reminds us of that large section of 
Indian royalty that have already assembled with their 
picturesque retinues in Delhi, where they will pass in 
brilliant procession before their Majesties. 

TWENTY-SIX YEARS LATER 

Let us view another important historic event in Bom- 
bay in the year 1937, with a new King-Emperor on the 
throne, George VI, and try to sense the tremendous 
changes that have come to India in the intervening 
years. On his coronation day on May 12, 1937, we sit in 
the drawing room of a friend and hear distinctly over the 
radio the entire coronation service. We hold in our hands 
a printed copy of the service as it is taking place in Lon- 



16 MOVING MILLIONS 

don and follow it during the broadcast the first time 
in the history of the British Empire that a king on his 
coronation day has addressed his people directly. His 
voice is heard in the homes of the lowly and the rich, 
throughout not only, the British Empire, but the world. 

Again Bombay becomes an enchanted island. The bril- 
liant electric illuminations outlining in artistic designs 
the magnificent Government and private buildings in 
red, white and blue, turn the city into a veritable fairy- 
land. We join with hundreds of thousands in a proces- 
sion following the same route as that royal procession of 
December 2, 1911, through this cosmopolitan city which 
in miniature is so illustrative of the growing unity of 
India. 

The procession wends its way first through the mod- 
ern city of up-to-date hotels, apartment houses, smart 
English shops, banks and offices. Leaving the broad roads 
of the Fort we plunge into the Indian city, where India's 
varied peoples daily rub shoulders. The hum of business 
is stilled but the busy, moving and gesticulating crowds 
in gala holiday garb fill the streets. At intervals the blue- 
uniformed, yellow-turbaned police, drawn largely from 
the local Hindu population, stand on duty. The many- 
tinted houses with gay new coats of color-washing of 
yellow, white and red; the luxurious carvings on the pil- 
lars of wood; the balconies overhanging the streets, 
crowded with people; the rosettes of windows, all lend 
to the effectiveness of the picture. This is the center of 
the Hindu commercial community. 



16 MOVING MILLIONS 

don and follow it during the broadcast the first time 
in the history of the British Empire that a king on his 
coronation day has addressed his people directly. His 
voice is heard in the homes of the lowly and the rich, 
throughout not only, the British Empire, but the world. 

Again Bombay becomes an enchanted island. The bril- 
liant electric illuminations outlining in artistic designs 
the magnificent Government and private buildings in 
red, white and blue, turn the city into a veritable fairy- 
land. We join with hundreds of thousands in a proces- 
sion following the same route as that royal procession of 
December 2, 1911, through this cosmopolitan city which 
in miniature is so illustrative of the growing unity of 
India. 

The procession wends its way first through the mod- 
ern city of up-to-date hotels, apartment houses, smart 
English shops, banks and offices. Leaving the broad roads 
of the Fort we plunge into the Indian city, where India's 
varied peoples daily rub shoulders. The hum of business 
is stilled but the busy, moving and gesticulating crowds 
in gala holiday garb fill the streets. At intervals the blue- 
uniformed, yellow-turbaned police, drawn largely from 
the local Hindu population, stand on duty. The many- 
tinted houses with gay new coats of color-washing of 
yellow, white and red; the luxurious carvings on the pil- 
lars of wood; the balconies overhanging the streets, 
crowded with people; the rosettes of windows, all lend 
to the effectiveness of the picture. This is the center of 
the Hindu commercial community. 






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THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 17 

As the procession wends its way, proud Maratha peo- 
ple, residents of this area, who altogether number six- 
teen millions and were the last to give allegiance to the 
British Raj, gaze from their shops and houses. No doubt 
many of them are remembering the important part their 
people played in making India's history and are dream- 
ing of what they will contribute to the new India, proud 
in the thought that from the very beginning of the pres- 
ent struggle for independence, leaders from their group 
have been in the forefront. 

The Gujaratis, keen men in business and politics, the 
group to which Mr. Gandhi belongs, also watch and 
march in this procession. They are justly proud of what 
their eight million people have contributed to this mir- 
acle of India. 

A group of Tamil people the men with long tufts 
of hair done on the tops of their heads, their women 
folk dressed in highly colored saris, yellow and red pre- 
dominating are silently gazing and thinking of the mil- 
lions in their Tamil land of the south with its own 
peculiar culture. They are secretly wondering just how 
truly their Tamil traditions are going to survive in this 
all-absorbing nation-forming process. A glimpse into the 
crowd reveals many of their neighbors, the Telugus of 
the southeast coast, whose extensive Andhra-land has 
been divided up, during these years of building a new 
India, among different states and the Madras Presidency. 

Proud, sensitive, and bare-headed Bengalis stand by, 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 17 

As the procession wends its way, proud Maratha peo- 

, residents of this area, who altogether number six- 
:een millions and were the last to give allegiance to the 
British Raj, gaze from their shops and houses. No doubt 
nany of them are remembering the important part their 
people played in making India's history and are dream- 
ng of what they will contribute to the new India, proud 
in the thought that from the very beginning of the pres- 
ent struggle for independence, leaders from their group 
lave been in the forefront. 

The Gujaratis, keen men in business and politics, the 
roup to which Mr. Gandhi belongs, also watch and 
narch in this procession. They are justly proud of what 
:heir eight million people have contributed to this mir- 
icle of India. 

A group of Tamil people the men with long tufts 
Df hair done on the tops of their heads, their women 
folk dressed in highly colored saris, yellow and red pre- 
dominating are silently gazing and thinking of the mil- 
lions in their Tamil land of the south with its own 
peculiar culture. They are secretly wondering just how 
truly their Tamil traditions are going to survive in this 
ill-absorbing nation-forming process. A glimpse into the 
:rowd reveals many of their neighbors, the Telugus of 
the southeast coast, whose extensive Andhra-land has 
been divided up, during these years of building a new 
[ndia, among different states and the Madras Presidency. 

Proud, sensitive, and bare-headed Bengalis stand by, 



18 MOVING MILLIONS 

no doubt at this moment filled with passionate devotion 
to mother Bengal. The Biharis, the few who have come 
to this great inviting commercial city for work or trade, 
gaze on the procession but have not forgotten their rich 
traditions, though far from their homes. Punjabis, 
Oriyas, groups of proud, handsome Rajputs, Kanarese 
and Malayalis elbowing their way in the crowd, repre- 
sent their millions of home folk hundreds of miles from 
this scene. All this mixture of tongues, races and re- 
ligions is the visible result of invasions in centuries 
long past. Each of these awakening people has its own 
"native land" within this great sub-continent, its own 
language, its own customs, and its own literature. Each 
has alphabets and modes of writing, different from the 
others. We have had a kaleidoscopic view of the varied 
races who make up Hindu India. 

Leaving this part of Bombay, the procession passes 
through Bhendi Bazaar, the center of the Moslem com- 
munity, representative of more than seventy-seven 
million of India's population. They are an important 
part of the world community that follows this faith. 
Since many of them are under British rule, any crisis 
among them in Turkey, Arabia, Palestine or Africa af- 
fects the situation in India and vice-versa. Britain is often 
accused of showing partiality to this minority group in 
order to make safer her world position. Every section 
of this community is to be seen in the streets or gazing 
from the tops of the houses as the procession advances. 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 19 

note particularly that the tall stalwart hill-men, the 
Afghans and the Baluchis, who have still the hardy look 
of the mountains, are sharing the enthusiasm of the oc- 
casion with their co-religionists. At latticed windows, 
and from the curtained windows of modern motor cars, 
veiled Moslem ladies peep shyly on the scenes about 
them. They are a reminder of the millions of women 
of India who still observe this most unhealthful custom 
of purdah. 

INDIA BECOMING A NATION 

In leaving this procession let us visualize the divided 
India of the centuries now approaching the possibility 
of working as a nation. Is this the India which is the 
mother of at least four of the world's living religions, 
Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism? Yes, this 
is the India which is also the result of successive in- 
vasions that have poured down upon her through the 
mountain passes in the extreme northwest. Here is epit- 
omized the India which has been overrun by Indo- 
Europeans, Scythians, Huns, Afghans, Persians, Mon- 
gols and Turks. Yes, this is the same India also whose 
later invaders have come to her from the sea the Eu- 
ropeans, Portuguese, Dutch, Danes, French and English 
seamen all. 

When George VI came to the throne, he looked 
upon a vastly different political India from that over 
which his father began to reign some twenty-six years 



,20 MOVING MILLIONS 

earlier. In this period there arose that fervent national 
spirit which has done more to unite all India into one 
people speaking one voice, than any other fact in her 
history. As our children's children read Indian his- 
tory, time lending to it a more correct perspective, they 
will say, ''Surely the welding of this great sub-continent 
into the nation we know as the India of our day is a mira- 
cle of the first magnitude in nation building." 

THE PERIOD OF GREATEST BRITISH INFLUENCE 
Just eighty years ago India came directly under the 
English Crown. Railway travel increased in volume 
and popularity by leaps and bounds. Factories and mod- 
ern industrialism began to appear in larger cities. There 
was an abnormal enthusiasm for English education and 
the high schools and colleges were insufficient to meet 
the pressing demands. Sons of wealthier high caste par- 
ents, by hundreds and thousands, defied Hindu prejudice 
and crossed the "black water" to England and America 
to complete their English education. This was the period 
when India was most under the control of the West. 

The Russo-Japanese War in 1905 was truly a land- 
mark in human history, whose significance increases 
with the lapse of time. It sent a thrill throughout Asia 
to have little Japan, an Oriental nation; win a victory 
over a European Power. Educated young Indians every- 
where began to ask, "Why cannot India become free 
and strong like Japan?" It is from this date that the 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 21 

control of the West and white dominance began to 
ebb. Many educated Indians. began in real earnest their 
political agitation against British rule. The assassin's 
bomb and bullet came into use with almost a religious 
fervor. 

Following this period of agitation, in 1909, Great 
Britain granted political concessions in the form of the 
Morley-Minto Reforms. They made no breach with the 
old system. While they extended the sphere of popular 
influence, the controlling power remained in London. 
Thus there continued the rising tide of dissatisfaction, 
almost despair, in the minds of political Indian lead- 
ers. However, there remained in the masses a strong 
confidence in British good will and justice, as was so 
very strikingly evident in the hour of Britain's greatest 
need, the World War. India rallied to the aid of her 
foreign King-Emperor with a million and a quarter of 
her picked young men. She sent to the front one hun- 
dred thousand more soldiers than Australia, New Zea- 
land and Canada combined. She sent from her supplies 
also the tracks, rolling stock, engines, coal, and staff for 
the strategic railways in Mesopotamia. This service was 
rendered by all classes, rich and poor alike. The princes 
of India were generous contributors; while out of the 
poverty of the great masses of the people she gave a 
billion dollars in gifts and war loans, truly an epic of 
sacrifice. She did this with the increasing hope that, with 
an Allied victory, Britain would demonstrate her larger 



22 MOVING MILLIONS 

confidence in India's people by placing more o the 
country's affairs in their hands. 

AGITATION FOR SELF-GOVERNMENT 

On August 20, 1917, the Secretary of State for India, 
the Right Honorable Edwin Montagu, expressing no 
doubt the deep gratitude of the British Empire to India, 
gave her this solemn promise: "The policy of His Maj- 
esty's Government, with which the Government of India 
are in complete accord, is that of the increasing associ- 
ation of Indians in every branch of the administration 
and the gradual development of self-governing institu- 
tions with a view to the progressive realization of re- 
sponsible government in India as an integral part of 
the British Empire " This declaration was fol- 
lowed by an act of Parliament in 1919 known as 
the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. These constitutional 
changes, which would have been hailed even five years 
previously as epoch-making, were unhesitatingly de- 
nounced on their appearance as overdue, incomplete, 
disappointing and unsatisfactory. The Home Rule move- 
ment had grown rapidly during the war, and thus self- 
government was now immediately demanded by the 
extremist group as their reward for loyalty. The days 
became increasingly difficult. Hate and misunderstand- 
ing took the place of calm, balanced judgment. The pace 
of constitutional advance seemed unthinkably slow to 
the extremist groups, the progress in nation-building al- 
most imperceptible. 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 23 

The Montagu-Chelmsf ord Act held two definite aims 
in view. 

In the British provinces in India, which now number 
eleven, the aim was to set up in each a unit of the new 
constitutional democracy. In the provincial govern- 
ments, the clumsy system called dyarchy, that is the 
system of dividing responsibility between British and 
Indians, was to be followed. The departments of rev- 
enue, justice, irrigation, police, and prisons were held 
by the British. The departments of agriculture, industry, 
local self-government, public works, health, education, 
and excise were transferred to the Indian ministers. The 
ministers were responsible to the legislatures and were 
elected on the basis that each Indian religious com- 
munity should have its share of numbers proportionate 
to its size and influence. Thus we have the communal 
system, which becomes such a vital political issue to the 
Hindu when millions of their numbers, the Untouch- 
ables, threaten to leave the Hindu community to join 
some other religious community. 

The second purpose of the reforms was to increase 
decidedly the Indian element in the Central Govern- 
ment, at Delhi. The aim here was additional representa- 
tion which would increase the membership of Indians 
in the Viceroy's Executive Council, his cabinet. The 
Central Government, which is made up of the Council 
of State and the Legislative Assembly, had important 
powers. They voted supplies, made laws, criticized and 



24 MOVING MILLIONS 

even censured the administration. But the one thing 
that remained constantly the red flag to the Indian Na- 
tionalist was that the power of veto continued to rest in 
the British Viceroy's hands. 

CONFLICTING VIEWPOINTS 

It would be impossible in such a brief review to men- 
tion all the important political events that crowded one 
upon another following the adoption of these reforms. 
From 1919 on, the atmosphere became increasingly in- 
flamed. Plainly there were two conflicting viewpoints 
which must be reconciled: that of the British, who re- 
mained the controlling power granting concessions; and 
that of the Indian Nationalists, who claimed thie full 
right to control affairs in their own country. It was rec- 
ogni2ed that only full knowledge, mutual understand- 
ing, and a sympathetic attitude for the good of both in 
cooperative service could offer hope of reconciling these 
conflicting purposes. 

At length in 1928 the Simon Commission was first 
sent to India to study the situation and to secure the 
facts on which a revised plan of government would be 
framed. It secured them in the face of intense opposition 
and boycott. We can well understand why. It was with- 
out Indian representation. 

So again came the Simon Commission a few months 
later. This time it added Indian personnel. Following 
this were the Round Table Conferences in London in 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 25 

1930, 1931, and 1932, with the purpose of including the 
widest possible Indian representation. At one of these 
conferences Mr. Gandhi was present as the sole repre- 
sentative of the Indian National Congress. But the con- 
flicting viewpoints remained so distinct that he returned 
to his native land only again to share the fate of im- 
prisonment with thousands of his fellow citizens. 

However, while Government continued to hold a 
strong hand on radical Nationalist activities, there were 
liberal minds both British and Indian, hammering away 
on the new India Constitution. It was necessarily a slow 
process. To quote from J. A. Spender, "There are no 
analogies which exactly fit the case of India; in the long 
run she must find her own solutions, but a recognition of 
the essential differences between the Government of a 
homogeneous country like Great Britain and that of a 
continent like India, is in this respect the beginning of 
wisdom." 1 It is indeed a new thing in history that is be- 
ing attempted. 

THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 
India has gradually developed an increasingly effective 
organization through which to express her aspirations, 
the Indian National Congress. The intelligentsia had as 
early as 1885, with seventy-two delegates from the vari- 
ous provinces of India, met together with a group of 

1 J. A. Spender, Great Britain, Empire and Commonwealth, p. 758. Lon- 
don, Cassell & Co., 1936. 



26 MOVING MILLIONS 

sympathetic Englishmen, to establish the Indian National 
Congress. The language of this first conference was mild 
and complimentary, but in later years it became caustic 
and critical. This change of attitude has been most sig- 
nificant, for it has more certainly sensed and more ef- 
fectively expressed the rising tide of Nationalism than 
either the Hindu Mahasabha, which represents the ortho- 
dox conservative Hindu group, or the All-India Moslem 
League, which represents Moslem opinion. The Con- 
gress is an all-Indian organization and meets each au- 
tumn or winter during some all-Indian holiday season, 
each time in a different part of the country, that its en- 
thusiasms and ideas may be more widely diffused. 

The high-water mark of Congress achievement thus 
far reached was in the elections of 1937, when thirty-five 
million cast their vote for representation under the 
new constitution with its unprecedented extension of 
franchise. Their candidates gained the majority in six 
provinces out of eleven. With the tacit control of these 
six provincial governments in their hands, for four 
months they continued to defer taking office, vigorously 
contesting the right of British veto. However, as this is 
being written, in late July, 1937, they have reached an 
agreement to accept their posts, and the elected dele- 
gates are taking their places in the Provincial Councils 
and Central Assembly. Meanwhile, Mr. Gandhi is telling 
the world, "The office acceptance by the Congress in the 
prosecution of its goal of complete independence, is a 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 27 

serious attempt, on the one hand, to avoid a bloody revo- 
lution and on the other hand to avoid more civil diso- 
bedience on a scale hitherto never attempted." 

Undoubtedly Great Britain has been an outstanding 
contributor to the national unity of India. The fact that 
this world power is transferring the reins of Govern- 
ment in an orderly constitutional way, without revolu- 
tion, will forever be to her credit and also to the credit 
of India's people, who have so strikingly proved to the 
world that there are ways to obtain rights without revo- 
lution. 

THE NEW CONSTITUTION 

April 1, 1937, will go on record as an historic date for 
India, as it marks the time when the first section of the 
new constitution came into force. The constitution of 
the United States of America can be reproduced in 
some twenty printed pages, whereas in its effort to meet 
the perplexities of the situation, the Indian constitution 
covers over two hundred, with more than a hundred 
pages of schedules. Not only was the diversification of 
British India to be provided for, but as the Secretary of 
State for India, the Marquis of Zetland, rightly ob- 
serves, "Perhaps the main element of complexity was 
the necessity of finding means whereby the Indian 
Princes, to whom one-fourth of the population of India 
owes allegiance, might be enabled for the first time, 
while preserving for the domestic affairs of their States 



28 MOVING MILLIONS 

their own forms of personal government, to unite their 
territories with British India as a single federation capa- 
ble of administering the common concerns alike of 
Indian States and British Indian Provinces." 1 

The intensity of the perplexity is still more evident 
when we remember that there are some seven hundred 
of these Indian rajahs, great and small, ruling over 
one-third of the territory of India, from which the 
Nationalist propaganda has been persistently excluded. 
They are the best protected autocrats in the world, 
each with his direct relationship to the British Crown. 
Amongst them are some able, progressive and conscien- 
tious rulers. Of these might be mentioned the Maha- 
rajah of Mysore, well known for his interest in civic 
improvement, industrial advance, and scientific re- 
search; the Nizam of Hyderabad, whose capital is the 
fourth largest city of India, the progressive center of an 
area of 82,672 square miles, as large as England and 
Scotland, with a population of twelve and a half mil- 
lions ; and the Gaekwar of Baroda, who is working for 
the promotion of compulsory primary education and 
circulating libraries, as well as experiments in agricul- 
ture. This ruler visited America some years ago with 
the Maharani and brought back with him many new 
ideas. The state of Travancore is famous for its high 
degree of literacy, and the young Maharajah has 

Marquis of Zetland, "India's New Constitution," Christian. Science 
Monitor, March 17, 1937. 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 29 

stepped out into the limelight through his recent edict 
admitting Untouchables into orthodox Hindu temples. 
However, the great majority of these rajahs have but 
petty states and many of them continue to live the life of 
the Oriental despot. 

OUTSTANDING LEADERS 

Every great movement of history brings to the front 
certain outstanding characters. This is strikingly true of 
India, which has many reasons to be proud of her pa- 
triots who have so fearlessly and bravely served her dur- 
ing this period of transition. 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi continues to be the 
figure that has captured the imagination of the world. It 
was he who for the first time in the history of India 
aroused the masses of this land to rally under one leader 
for one cause. How many times when his popularity has 
seemingly waned some people have said, "Gandhi is fin- 
ished now. So far as politics go, we shall hear no more 
of him." Then as some new crisis has arisen his influ- 

t 

ence and reputation have again flashed like a meteor 
across the frontiers of the whole world. This insignifi- 
cant looking man approaching his seventies, half ascetic, 
half shrewd scheming politician, remains an enigma 
even to his staunchest admirers and those working near- 
est to him. 

Another Congress leader and man of charming per- 
sonality is Jawaharlal Nehru. He is a handsome Kash- 



30 MOVING MILLIONS 

miri Brahman of wealth and social prominence who has 
captured the imagination of young India. He is India's 
eminent radical socialist patriot. He declares in no un- 
certain tones that before India can become the great 
nation she is capable of becoming, the Indian princes, 
the landowners, the capitalists and the sadhus (the 
Hindu mendicants) must go. The great question is, 
can his social program come into being without a 
bloody revolution? Because of his extreme views he has 
had to spend years in prison. His autobiography writ- 
ten while in prison and recently off the press is the 
most widely read political book in India and England 
today. He, as president of the Indian National Con- 
gress, during the last elections toured India by airplane, 
automobile, steamboat, canoe and bullock cart, on 
camels, on elephants and on foot, with the result that 
thirty-five million people cast their votes and Congress 
won by an overwhelming majority. Here is a dynamic 
character with whom undoubtedly India must reckon 
during the near future. 

A group of men most valuable to India during these 
years of crisis and tension have been that fine, stalwart, 
brilliant and thoroughly devoted group of Liberals who 
so often have helped to keep the balance, and who so 
generously gave of themselves to help towards an un- 
derstanding between the more radical national leaders 
and the government. On the one hand they refused to 
ally themselves with Civil Disobedience and the more 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 31 

radical Congress program, and on the other hand they 
sought to persuade the government to deal with the 
movement less harshly. In the end, they were able to act 
as mediators between the government and the im- 
prisoned Congress leaders in bringing about the truce 
of 1930. Their wisdom and counsels of moderation 
were also of great value in the ensuing Round Table 
Conferences. 

Leaders from the Moslem community have also made 
definite contributions as the miracle of modern India's 
social and political transformation has progressed. 

Increasingly, Indian Christian leaders are registering 
influence in shaping India's future. This has not been so 
rapid as the varied and extensive penetration of the 
Christian leaven and the numerical growth of the Chris- 
tian church would lead one naturally to expect. Among 
the many reasons for this are the facts that caste Hin- 
duism has ostracized from family, social and political 
contact those who have dared to accept Christian bap- 
tism; that large numbers of the Christian community 
have come from the oppressed, poverty-stricken, illiter- 
ate masses; and also that the various reforms started by 
Christian backing and practice are, in part at least, be- 
ing carried forward by other religious communities 
without formally accepting the Christ who actually initi- 
ated them. Added to these is the fact that those who 
have accepted the Christian faith are scattered throughr 
out India, and their service, in Government, social re- 



32 MOVING MILLIONS 

form, national advance, as doctors, teachers and in vil- 
lage uplift work, though massive in its total impact, is 
not sufficiently spectacular to command social notoriety 
or publicity. 

INDIAN WOMEN IN THE NEW DAY 

One of the most interesting and prophetic facts of this 
new day in India is the increasing part women are taking 
in Government as well as in social reforms. The Indian 
National Congress is rightly encouraging this partici- 
pation. 

All true friends of India have raised their voices and 
used their pens in trying to arouse public opinion with 
regard to the centuries-old wrongs against Indian wom- 
anhood. Their battlecry has been, "Female education, 
the remarriage of widows, and the raising of the age 
of marriage." If we look only at statistics, we must ad- 
mit that a pitifully small beginning has been made, even 
after much consecrated, earnest effort. Yet at this very 
point where during the past centuries the darkness has 
been deepest and most impenetrable, today the light of 
knowledge is penetrating, and we find the chief cause 
for deep gratitude. 

The All India Women's Conference, which held its 
first session in 1926 with yearly sessions since has al- 
ready achieved unbelievable results. Among its out- 
standing achievements was the passing of the Sarda Act 
in 1930. This act was framed by Mr. Harbilas Sarda. In 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 33 

his bill he aimed to fix the minimum age of marriage 
for girls at fourteen years and for boys, eighteen years, 
and sought to decree that all marriages under that age 
be invalid. Had the law as he framed it been adopted 
it would certainly have created one of the greatest social 
revolutions of our day. This bill was debated for weeks 
and was finally passed, but in such an amended form 
that, in spite of all the work of the reformers and all the 
soul-agony of many of India's chief men and women, it 
was what leading Indian patriots disgustedly called "a 
dummy," a "dead thing," or "a law with all the teeth 
drawn." This, they pointed out, left the door open for 
child-marriages, for it permitted the performing of such 
marriages provided the parties involved paid a fine. Are 
not those of us who move among the people constantly 
being told, as we see marriage preparations, that they 
must now pay a "fee" to Government and is not that 
"fee" now added to the already crushingly heavy ex- 
pense of marriage in India? As the Sarda Act stands to- 
day it is more educational than restrictive. Yet it has been 
a most noteworthy attempt to consolidate opinion favor- 
able to this great social reform. 

One of the richest experiences that has come to me in 
India was that of attending a session of the All India 
Women's Conference with Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, the fa- 
mous Indian poetess, as president. It was challenging 
to witness these hundreds of women, Hindu, Moham- 
medan, Parsee, Christian and Theosophist, working side 



34 MOVING MILLIONS 

by side for the good of the nation and for their sisters, 
with never once a break, with no friction, and with no 



"scenes." 



On this occasion the late Lady Dorabji Tata, a Parsee, 
gave an "At Home" to the Conference. Her home in 
Bombay was a palace, one of the most magnificent 
homes in the world. After elaborate refreshments we 
were entertained by a great Russian-American pianist. 
Mrs. Sarojini Naidu announced and interpreted his se- 
lections. She is world famed as an eloquent orator. I have 
attended many piano recitals in various parts of the 
world but never one in such perfect surroundings: the 
beautiful home, filled with hundreds of women of varied 
religious beliefs in their beautiful costumes and their 
exquisite jewelry. 

However, the next morning as I looked from my 
window out upon the squalor of our slums, and recalled 
that, at most, only two women out of every hundred in 
this fair land are literate, as I thought of child-mar- 
riage, enforced widowhood, zenana life, the purdah 
system, and the opposition of the orthodox Hindu and 
Mohammedan to every change, I realized that these 
women, a mere drop from the vast ocean of India's 
womanhood, had a difficult and perilous task ahead of 
them. They are not blind to the fact that it may take 
them generations to attain their goal, but they have put 
their hands to the plough and they will never turn 
back. These women have declared themselves as being 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 35 

against caste distinctions, communal divisions, polyg- 
amy, purdah, child-marriage and sex discriminations. 
They have also declared themselves for equal rights of 
inheritance, and for free and compulsory education. 
Moreover they have plunged into the work to bring about 
these reforms. Mr. Gandhi knew what he was about 
when he called upon the women of India to follow 
him in his non-violent battle for freedom, nor did they 
disappoint him. 

PEACEFUL PICKETING 

During the tense days of 1931, when the non-violence 
campaign organized by Mr. Gandhi was in operation, 
many Indian society ladies of the various communities 
of Bombay discarded their dainty French slippers, and 
their imported Parisian silks, and donned the home- 
spun, home-woven khaddar worn by the Nationalist! 
And many of them counted it a privilege to go to jail 
to prove their genuine patriotism! 

One night in Bombay when the rain poured as it can 
only pour during an Indian monsoon, a procession of 
Indian women from the best families in the city sat in 
the streets and open plazas, hour after hour, when 
their processions were stopped by the police. On an- 
other day of torrential rain, when the Bombay Legis- 
lative Assembly elections were to take place, the women 
went out by hundreds in that deluge because the Con- 
gress party had determined to boycott those elec- 



36 MOVING MILLIONS 

tions ; and so effective was their work that the elections 
were not held that day ! 

Can we forget the raid on the Dharsana Salt Works 
during the intense heat of May, 1930, when Sarojini 
Naidu was leading the procession and they were 
stopped by the police? It was then that she and her 
followers sat down in the dust of the road in the ex- 
treme heat, without water, and remained seated, hour 
after hour, spinning with their hand spindles, while 
they good-humoredly entertained each other and jok- 
ingly teased the police. It was a very common thing to 
see women, in saffron colored saris made of khaddar, 
sitting at the doors of liquor shops and where foreign 
cloth was being sold, doing what they called "peaceful 
picketing." Who will ever be able to estimate the in- 
fluence they had? 

INFLUENTIAL WOMEN 

Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy of Madras is a brilliant 
Hindu woman of outstanding ability who has taken an 
active part in politics, not with the Congress as Mrs. 
Naidu has done, but as a Liberal. She is known through- 
out India as a wise and competent legislator because 
of the splendid work she has so ably accomplished as a 
member of the Madras Legislative Assembly. When 
serving as president of the All India Women's Confer- 
ence in Lahore, she said, "I feel that I would be failing 
in my duty if I did not offer a word of tribute to the 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 37 

several missionary organizations which have been the 
pioneers in the cause of female education. The women 
population of this country has been placed under a deep 
debt of gratitude to the several missionary agencies 
for their most valuable contributions to the educational 
uplift of the Indian women." 

Later when discussing medical help for the women 
of India, she said, "Even in this field, missionaries were 
the pioneers in organizing medical relief and establish- 
ing hospitals and dispensaries for women and children 
in India. The first medical woman in India, Miss Clara 
Swain, came from America in 1869 " 

Perhaps one of the most picturesque yet dynamic 
women to come into political prominence has been 
Begum Shah Nawaz of the Punjab, coming directly 
from the Mohammedan purdah group into the active 
political life of the nation. She was a very influential 
member of the Round Table Conference. Just before 
sailing for London to attend this conference she came 
out of purdah. Since that date she has been a progres- 
sive and hard-working member of the Punjab Legis- 
lative Assembly and a tireless worker in all reforms 
dealing with the advancement of women. 

Every Christian woman is proud that in the early 
days of pioneering for reforms relating to women, 
there was Pundita Ramabai, who was a lone voice call- 
ing in the wilderness. That voice, like the coming of 
a single swallow, certainly did not mean that summer 



38 MOVING MILLIONS 

had come. Yet that voice was the first and we rejoice 
in the fact. Many of the present-day leaders in this 
work received inspiration from her. 

Belonging to a later date was Susie Sorabji, a prom- 
inent Christian educationalist of western India. She al- 
ways took her place with the utmost ease and charm in 
the great gatherings of Indian women. There is in the 
city of Poona a road named "The Susie Sorabji Road" 
in her memory. The influential institution, St. Helena's, 
where for so many years she labored, continues to be a 
center of genuine influence. 

There are Christian women of outstanding ability 
throughout India today working side by side with 
other national leaders as college professors, teachers, 
doctors and legislators. Mrs. Mona Hensman, a woman 
of exceeding charm and personality, who has served as 
president of the National Young Women's Christian 
Association of India, is now working effectively as an 
able legislator in the upper house of the Madras Legis- 
lative Assembly. 

Increasingly the men and women of India today are 
thinking in terms of constitutional government. This 
is not a natural product of India's rich and varied herit- 
age, but it is the expected result from her association 
with Britain during the past century. In the Provincial 
Legislative Assemblies under the new constitution 
women are being welcomed as members. In the United 
Provinces Mrs. Ranjit S. Pandit, sister of the leading 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 39 

nationalist, Jawaharlal Nehru, has been chosen Min- 
ister of Public Health. She is a woman of charming 
personality and real ability. The fact that her children 
are in a Christian school, which the majority of the 
American missionary children of India attend, is indi- 
cative of her broad-minded attitude. 

GREAT RELIGIOUS PROBLEMS 

As you think with other minds in the succeeding 
chapters of more detailed facts and more concrete in- 
cidents concerning this miracle of changing India, you 
will become increasingly aware of the many perplex- 
ing questions which must be faced. India, sharing the 
upheaval of a troubled world which tends to reject all 
religions, is doubtless the most religious of all lands, 
and yet her religions have often been her greatest bar- 
rier to progress. Both nationalism and reform demand 
a change which may become catastrophic. What ad- 
justments must the Christian church make to meet this 
situation? 

Communism here finds fertile soil for growth. Will 
Government under the new Constitution be able so 
to coordinate its constructive factors as to maintain 
orderly development while conserving cherished prin- 
ciples and privileges for all communities ? 

Sixty million Untouchables are on the move from 
their semi-slavery of the centuries. Christian teaching 
and service have awakened in them new desires for 



40 MOVING MILLIONS 

religious, Social, and material welfare. Should they 
turn to Christ, what preparation is required in the Chris- 
tian church to meet adequately this unprecedented de- 
mand ? 

The divisions in the church are gradually being 
healed through close cooperation in service, facing 
staggering difficulties and opportunities. What is now 
most necessary and expedient to hasten a united church ? 

An increasing number of educated women are grad- 
ually awakening their slumbering sisters to share the 
light of a new day. What more can be done to insure 
that this freedom will be truly Christian and whole- 
some in every respect? 

Because of certain patent reasons the Christian church 
has become too dependent on the West. What are the 
immediate next steps towards remedying these defects, 
developing its own self-reliance and a deepened pas- 
sion for India's redemption? 

Many have lost the keenness of a truly missionary 
passion. As one looks afresh at Christ, then at the far- 
reaching achievements, the needs and the open doors 
of opportunity in this land of India, can the loss of 
interest be worthily justified ? 

We missionaries labor in India today in one of the 
ripest harvest fields the world has ever afforded. The 
sacrificial investment of Christian personality and 
money are bearing fruit worthy of deepest gratitude. 
Changes in the situation are demanding adjustments in 



THE MIRACLE OF MODERN INDIA 41 

policy. These adjustments are often not easy, yet they 
are being made. But more than the need of adjustment 
in policy is the need of a fresh inflow of Christian light 
and life, producing transformed character. After years 
of study of comparative religion and with full appreci- 
ation of the achievements of science and art, it is clearer 
today than ever that Jesus Christ moves supreme in the 
stream of human living. Our supreme purpose in India 
is to introduce Him. We labor that men may whole- 
heartedly become his followers. But we also rejoice at 
every penetration of his life-giving rays into the reform 
movements and other religions. His dynamic is felt when 
he enters. His vitalizing power remains unmeasured. 
His transforming friendship is a sure solvent for other- 
wise impossible problems. He has awakened these new 
movements. Their destiny is safest in his hands. 

We see in our dream India a united nation, with 
Christ supreme. The miracle of India for us does not 
merely mean a politically or geographically united 
India, but an India melted together by the transform: 
ing power of Jesus Christ. 

"Dreamer of Dreams ! We take the taunt with gladness, 
Knowing that God beyond the years you see, 

Hath wrought the dreams that count with you for madness, 
Into the substance of the life to be." 



CHAPTER II 

THE UNTOUCHABLES 

By J. WASKOM PICKETT 

THE dramatic announcement from a small town 
in Western India in October, 1935, that ten 
thousand Untouchables had denounced the 
Hindu religion as responsible for their degradation and 
oppression, and had resolved to adopt the religion 
which, upon inquiry by their leaders, was found to 
possess the largest values for them, was recog'nized 
around the world as news of vast importance and ar- 
resting human interest. When this was followed by the 
announcement that the Untouchables throughout India 
were invited to join the revolt against Hinduism and 
the quest for a satisfying faith and that many thou- 
sands of them were doing so, world attention was fo- 
cused upon these underprivileged sons and daughters 
of India as it had never been before. If by now casual 
readers have forgotten, the thoughtful remember and 
inquiry persists. 

"Who are the Untouchables? Why and to whom are 
they 'untouchable'? Will missionaries touch them?" 
These and nine other questions about the people who 
are the subject of this chapter were put to the writer 

42 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 43 

recently by a famous radio news commentator who 
immediately added, "No subject I have discussed in 
twelve months has excited more interest than the news 
from India about the Untouchables." This expert's 
statement about popular interest in the Untouchables 
has been amply confirmed. 

WHY "UNTOUCHABLES" ? 

The word "untouchable" means exactly what it ap- 
pears to mean. Those to whom the word is applied are 
not to be touched. Contact with the body or clothes 
of one of them causes pollution. Even accidental con- 
tact requires a ceremonial cleansing and a bath. Deliber- 
ate contact is often regarded as a cause for outcasting. 

But in India the word is not in favor in all circles. 
Many other words are used to denote approximately the 
same groups, though one name may narrow and another 
widen the limits of those included. "Depressed classes" 
has been widely used. However, some may be accounted 
"depressed" who are not treated as Untouchables. 

A few years ago strong objection began to be taken 
here and there within the ranks of these oppressed 
classes to the terms by which they were known. This 
led to the introduction of such names as Adi-Dravidas, 
or original Dravidians, and Adi-Hindus, or original 
Hindus. Many Untouchable castes moved to adopt new 
caste names. These efforts have stimulated the higher 
caste Hindus and even Governments to propose new 



44 MOVING MILLIONS 

names. Mr. Gandhi coined "Harijan," which he defines 
as "God's people." To this Dr. Ambedkar and many 
others object, declaring that "Harijan" means not 
"God's people" but "Krishna's people," and implies 
that they are bound to Hinduism. Provincial govern- 
ments are trying "Scheduled Castes," which means 
"castes included in a schedule prepared by Government 
of those that require special protection and assistance," 
and "Exterior Castes," which means "castes not in- 
cluded in the framework of the Hindu village com- 
munity." 

Today many Untouchables are protesting against all 
names that hide or ignore the facts about their oppres- 
sions. "Don't try to fool us and quiet your conscience 
by calling us by less offensive names. Deal justly with 
us. That's more difficult, but nothing else will satisfy 
our demands," said one Untouchable recently. Another 
has spoken even more strongly: "Don't try to protect 
yourselves from the storm of our wrath and the world's 
contempt by coining new names to camouflage your 
cruelties. "We won't accept verbal caresses from people 
to whom we remain in fact untouchable. You can't 
compensate or atone in words for the inhuman oppres- 
sion which you still inflict upon us." 

WHAT IT MEANS To BE AN UNTOUCHABLE 
A young man of some education gave this statement 
of his own experience of untouchability: "We are made 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 45 

to live outside of the village. We cannot draw water 
from any well unless it be our own, and in our village 
we have none, but must wait beside the well until 
some one consents to draw water for us. The barbers 
won't cut our hair, the washermen won't wash our 
clothes, the merchants won't allow us to examine any 
goods in their shop. When we walk in the street people 
avoid us and shrink even from our shadows. We cannot 
enter the temples or the schools. The more religious 
our Hindu neighbors are the more afraid they seem to 
be of a touch from one of us. I have been beaten twice 
by order of the big men of my village for my impu- 
dence in ignoring my status as an Untouchable. My 
mother was kicked so severely that two ribs were broken 
and she had a miscarriage, because she inadvertently 
touched a young man when she tripped over an ob- 
struction in the street. And instead of prosecuting the 
man who kicked her the police took ten rupees from 
my father on threat of charging that my mother had 
assaulted the young man." 1 

THE ORIGINS OF UNTOUCHABILITY 

No one can describe with certainty the process by 

which untouchability developed. Many considerations 

have contributed to its origin and growth. Color and 

race are among them. The Untouchables are chiefly 

1 W. H. Wiser, "The Economics of Poverty," The Indian Witness, 
August 19, 1937, p. 518. 



46 MOVING MILLIONS 

from among pre-Aryan aboriginal tribes and are darker 
than the Aryans. Color and race prejudice were strong 
in the ancient Aryan's mind and he determined to pre- 
vent associations that might lead to the marriage of his 
children or children's children with the darker race. 
Moreover the darker races had been subjugated in war- 
fare and that fact contributed to their enslavement 
and the contempt of which untouchability was born. 
Through the centuries difference in social patterns, in 
cultural and economic levels, in moral standards, in oc- 
cupations, in eating habits and in religious concepts 
and practices have influenced its development. The 
Aryan higher castes have been repelled by some of the 
practices of the Untouchables, notably their eating of 
the flesh of the sacred cow, and of animals that have 
died of old age or disease. 

It must not be supposed that the Untouchables' social 
patterns were all inferior or their moral standards all 
lower than those of their oppressors, but only that they 
were different and were regarded as barbarous. The 
Untouchables allowed widow re-marriage, the higher 
castes did not. The higher castes adopted child-mar- 
riage, the Untouchables continued for centuries the 
custom of post-puberty marriage. Female infanticide 
was largely confined to the higher castes, and sati, the 
burning alive of widows on the funeral pyres of their 
husbands, was entirely confined to them. The Un- 
touchables sometimes allowed a woman to divorce her 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 47 

husband, the higher castes never did. The double stand- 
ard of personal morality characterized the upper classes 
only. 

EFFECT OF OCCUPATIONAL RESTRICTIONS 
Occupation has had more to do with the maintenance 
than with the origins of untouchability. Certain castes 
have been restricted to occupations that are held in 
contempt, such as work in leather, disposing of car- 
casses, and cleaning privies. With occupations made 
hereditary, and with eating, drinking and all kinds of 
friendly social relationships permitted only within the 
borders of one's own caste, a situation has developed 
which can hardly be imagined by people in other lands. 
Take for example the case of privy cleaners, commonly 
called Sweepers. Not only are they compelled to earn 
their living in this way but all their social relationships 
are with Sweepers. All their relatives do that work and 
every "respectable" occupation is closed to them. More- 
over all their ancestors for a thousand years or more 
have been Sweepers, unless it be that somewhere in the 
line one has entered who became a Sweeper because he 
was excluded from a higher caste for some misde- 
meanor and chose this occupation rather than starve. 

It is sometimes supposed that the Sweepers do not 
find their occupation trying, having been hardened 
thereto by generations of experience. Inquiry indicates 
that for many of them it is most difficult. A Sweeper 



48 MOVING MILLIONS 

woman recently reported that it took her six years to 
acquire sufficient control to do her work. That woman 
is now a Christian and an efficient, cultured school 
teacher; her daughter is in high school, apparently 
headed for college. Had the mother remained a Hindu, 
both she and her daughter would have been restricted 
to such joys in life as comport with the life of Sweepers. 

NOT DISTINGUISHED BY DIRT, STUPIDITY OR VICE 
The question, "Why do you treat these people as 
'Untouchables' ?" addressed to a member of one of the 
oppressor castes, usually brings the reply that they are 
dirty, or stupid, or vicious, or that they must suffer for 
their misdeeds in past lives. The last answer takes us 
into the realm of theological speculation and need not 
be considered now. It is true that among the Untouch- 
ables many are dirty, some are stupid, and a few vicious. 
But these are not distinguishing characteristics. The dirt, 
stupidity and vice of an Indian village are by no means 
concentrated in the quarters of the Untouchables, nor 
are the clean, intelligent and right-living men and women 
all found in the quarters of the touchable castes. 

Fundamentally the Untouchables are very much the 
same sort of people as their fellow citizens in India and 
their contemporaries in other countries. The differences 
that are apparent concern social patterns, institutions 
and traditions, and are all on the surface of life; the re- 
semblances concern emotions, capacity and character 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 49 

and go to the heart of life. In an environment that is 
extraordinarily hostile to the cultivation of the social 
virtues most Untouchables are honorable, law-abiding 
and friendly. Where everything and everybody tells 
them that they are dirty, stupid and vicious, most of 
them have managed to retain a measure of self-respect, 
certain standards of cleanliness, intelligence and honor, 
and a capacity, mental and spiritual, that surprises all 
who have the opportunity to witness their response to 
the stimulus of the Christian gospel. 

In fact, the Untouchables are distinguished from 
their fellows by nothing else so much as by the cruelties 
inflicted upon them. They are sentenced to life oppres- 
sion for the crime of being born of their mothers. The 
guilt is not theirs but belongs to the court of Hindu 
public opinion that sentences them, and the community 
that enforces the sentence. The court and the com- 
munity have been led into their crime by trust in the 
Code of Manu, the lawgiver of Hinduism. 

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF UNTOUCHABLES 
Centuries of oppression have bred in the Untouch- 
ables certain mass characteristics, as, for example, a 
fatalistic acquiescence in poverty and illiteracy. Ex- 
ceptions there are and probably always have been, but 
the pattern of hopeless surrender to grinding poverty 
and ignorance was thoroughly established in the con- 
sciousness of Untouchable masses until the stirring 
events of recent years. 



50 MOVING MILLIONS 

Another characteristic has been fear. While the 
power of their masters and neighbors over them was 
unlimited they lived in abject fear of offending them. 
Even now, when a large measure of protection is af- 
forded the depressed classes by law and by public opin- 
ion which is improving rapidly few Untouchables 
are entirely free from fear of the higher castes. Within 
a month we have heard fresh reports of tyrannical mis- 
treatment for the following offences: (1) Keeping an 
umbrella up during a rainstorm in the presence of a 
Brahman; (2) riding past a village head-man on a 
bicycle; (3) wearing a clean shirt; and (4) calling one- 
self a Christian. For these "crimes" the offenders were 
punished as follows: (1) The umbrella was broken and 
thrown away; (2) the rider was abused verbally, threat- 
ened with a beating, and compelled to walk, leading 
his cycle, until out of sight; (3) the shirt was torn and 
dirt thrown over the boy who had dared to wear it; and 
(4) the man was compelled to do begar, forced labor 
without pay, for his landlord for two weeks during the 
harvest season, when otherwise he might have earned 
one-third of his whole year's income. 

But fear of man is exceeded by fear of evil spirits. 
The Untouchables with exceptions which, happily, are 
increasing, are animists and many of them live in terror 
of spirits which they imagine to lurk in the trees, in 
gulleys or ravines, in deserted houses, old wells and 
places where the dead have been burned or buried. A 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 51 

man whose entire family is pathetically undernourished 
and clothed in rags may spend a week's wages to ex- 
orcise the devil that is causing his tooth to ache. A vil- 
lage Christian, converted from the Untouchables in 
1936, told the writer that he had lived in terror of evil 
spirits all his life until he learned from members of his 
caste who had become Christians that evil spirits never 
troubled them, and that Jesus had cast out the evil 
spirits of many who believed on him. 

One of the most tragic characteristics bred in the 
Untouchables by Hinduism is distrust and antagonism 
between castes. The Brahmans, administrators of the 
Hindu social system, have been masters of the technique 
of "divide and rule." The victims of the caste system 
have been induced by a graduated scale of disabilities 
to fight among themselves for their positions. One 
caste has sought to ease its sufferings at the expense of 
another. When a Christian movement begins in one of 
these castes the greatest difficulty is encountered in per- 
suading the converts that the gospel must be preached 
to members of the other Untouchable castes. The con- 
verts are influenced by their Hindu caste heritage to 
seek the advancement of their own people by showing 
that they are superior to and do not associate with 
members of other Untouchable castes. 

NUMBERS AND LOCATION 

No one can say with assurance how many Untouch- 
ables there are in India. To get a correct figure would 



52 MOVING MILLIONS 

require a special census conducted by master psychol- 
ogists. One caste may be untouchable in one area but 
not in another. In the cities, especially the larger port 
cities, many people who in their villages would be 
strictly untouchable have become associates of their 
higher caste Hindu neighbors. On the other hand, a few 
very strict Hindus count all Christians, including Eu- 
ropeans and Americans, as Untouchables. When other 
names are used the numbers to whom they are applied 
are raised or lowered within very wide limits. The fol- 
lowing estimate has been made by a leader of the Un- 
touchables: 

Unapproachables 500,000 

Untouchables 35,600,000 

Depressed Classes 50,000,000 

Unapproachables are now found only in parts of 
southern India. Elsewere all signs of that most vicious 
extension of untouchability have disappeared. But Un- 
touchables are found in every part of the domain of 
Hinduism. Historically it appears to be true that the ac- 
ceptance of Hinduism has led always to the recognition 
of certain classes of the population as Untouchables. In 
areas where the central concepts of Hinduism have never 
been accepted, as in certain tracts peopled exclusively 
by aboriginal tribes, there is no sign of untouchability, 
and in areas where Hinduism has been supplanted by 
Islam the practice has withered and died. 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 53 

THE HINDU RELIGION AND UNTOUCHABILITY 
This leads directly to the question, "Is Hinduism, as 
a religion, responsible for untouchability ?" To this ques- 
tion Mr. Gandhi answers, "No!" and Dr. Ambedkar re- 
plies, "Yes!" Mr. Gandhi vigorously condemns and as- 
sails untouchability and urges the Untouchables to 
remain Hindus. Dr. Ambedkar vigorously condemns and 
assails Hinduism as responsible for untouchability and 
advises the Untouchables to cast the Hindu religion, root 
and branch, from their hearts and lives. The former 
speaks as an upper caste Hindu who deplores untouch- 
ability as a sin of his caste colleagues; the latter speaks as 
an Untouchable who holds that the oppression which 
he and his fellows suffer is the logical result of the re- 
ligious concepts Hinduism has imparted to their op- 
pressors. Mr. Gandhi says the sin is in the heart of the 
higher caste Hindus. Dr. Ambedkar says it is in the heart 
of Hinduism. 

The responsibility of Hinduism may be sought in two 
directions: its effect first upon the oppressor castes and 
second upon the oppressed. Perhaps the most central 
concepts in Hinduism are karma and rebirth. The first 
teaches that every act inexorably determines its reward 
or its punishment, the second that the soul experiences 
a long chain of births and lives, in each of which joys 
and sorrows, advantages and disadvantages, are de- 
termined by what has gone before. The linking together 



54 MOVING MILLIONS 

of these central concepts leads logically to the conclu- 
sion that, if the Untouchables suffer, the responsibility 
belongs not to their oppressors but to themselves for 
misdeeds in earlier incarnations. So it relieves the op- 
pressor of any sense of wrong-doing and even produces 
in his mind a vague sense of working with eternal, in- 
finite power to do justice. A Brahman priest told the 
writer recently that Christian missionaries are putting 
the Untouchables back fifty thousand incarnations by 
imparting to them teaching that makes them dissatisfied 
with Hinduism and ambitious for better conditions in 
which to live. "They should accept their sufferings 
meekly and in time they would be born as high caste 
Hindus. Perhaps after many thousands of years they 
might even be Brahmans." 

The direct effect of these doctrines upon the minds of 
the Untouchables is even more harmful to them. Noth- 
ing that Hinduism has done to the Untouchables has 
been so devastating as teaching them to despise them- 
selves. When we realize how much our conduct is in- 
fluenced by the mental picture we form of ourselves, 
we can understand at least dimly the damage done to 
the Untouchables by making them believe that they are 
what they are, poor, illiterate, oppressed and despised, 
because of their sins. For Brahman philosophers and 
members of other beneficiary castes the concept of karma 
is pleasant enough, adding to their enjoyment of the 
good things of life and sense of divine favor; but to the 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 55 

Untouchables it is appalling, for it adds to their misery 
a sense of utter vileness and depravity. It is probable 
that the influence of karma on the mind and spirit of 
the Untouchables has done them more harm than all 
other oppressions inflicted on them. It has robbed them 
of initiative, hope and self-respect. 

In a North India village we engaged in the following 
conversation with an Untouchable: 

Q. Who are you? 

A. I'm a Sweeper. 

Q. Are you a Christian ? 

A. No. I was born a Sweeper. I must die a Sweeper. 

Q. But why not be a Christian ? 

A. For my sins I was made a Sweeper. I must not ob- 
ject. Can I change my karma and be born a Christian? 

Q. Why not ask God to forgive your sins? He will 
do so and -you can be born again in this life. 

A. No. There is no forgiveness. I was very wicked or 
I would not have been born a Sweeper. 

Q. Won't you send your children to the mission 
school ? They can live better lives if they learn. 

A. No! They, too, must suffer for their sins. They 
were born as Sweepers. If they try to be gentlemen it will 
only add to their sins. 

REVOLTS 

The victims of any social order are naturally more 
hospitable to ideas of change in that order than are those 



56 MOVING MILLIONS 

who profit by it. And when a social order that imposes 
hardships upon a section of the population rests upon 
religious concepts, as does the order associated with 
Hinduism, those concepts are less likely to hold the al- 
legiance of the victims of that order than of its benefici- 
aries. So the centuries have brought many revolts against 
caste and karma and other perversions of truth that un- 
derlie both the social system and religious practice of 
Hinduism. While their leaders have sometimes come 
from high or middle castes, the rebels have been re- 
cruited in the main from the Untouchables. These re- 
volts have even extended to military action. Moslem 
conquerors were often aided by Untouchables. The 
Battle of Plassey in 1757, which decided the issue of 
British rule in India, was won by Clive through the aid 
of an army of Dusadhs, and the Marathas were defeated 
in western India through the help of regiments of 
Mahars. Moslem predominance in the Punjab and in 
eastern Bengal has been achieved through mass move- 
ments of Untouchables to Islam, entire castes and tribes 
in some areas having joined the followers of the prophet 
of Arabia. Many Untouchables have also tried Sikhism, 
an eclectic religion compounded of Hindu and Islamic 
elements. This religion, which arose at the same time as 
the Protestant Reformation in Europe, denounces caste 
and idolatry and proclaims human brotherhood and the 
unity of God. In every province of India Christian con- 
verts have come mainly from the unprivileged classes, 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 57 

Untouchables and aboriginal tribesmen. This is true de- 
spite the fact that missionary effort has been addressed 
mainly to the more privileged classes. 

MISSIONARY POLICY 

When missionaries arrived in India at the beginning 
of the modern era of Christian expansion they quite 
naturally gave primary attention to the Brahmans and 
those who shared with them in the control of society. 
The Brahmans were cultured, ready in speech and ac- 
tion, interested in philosophy and religion, and they 
controlled public life. The Untouchables, on the other 
hand, were untutored and uncouth, retiring, without a 
voice in public affairs, despised by their neighbors, in- 
articulate on the subject of religion, and reputed to be 
dirty and stupid. Small wonder that many missionaries 
concentrated entirely upon Brahmans, expecting through 
their conversion to win all classes to Christ. But few 
Brahmans responded as the missionaries hoped they 
would. Many were attracted by the character of Christ 
and professed admiration for his teaching, but saw in 
the gospel a menace to the exalted position of their caste. 
They preferred Hinduism with special privilege to Chris- 
tianity with equality. Gradually, however, the Christian 
message reached the oppressed Untouchables and here 
and there, where hope was not dead, it was heard with 
gladness. 

The largest movements have occurred among Telugu- 



58 MOVING MILLIONS 

speaking people. At the time of the Indian famine of 
1876 Dr. John E. Ckmgh, a Baptist missionary who had 
been trained as an engineer, took over a government con- 
tract for building a canal in South India, employing 
Untouchables for the work. "These unfortunate people 
were all deeply impressed with the fact that religious 
leaders should so unselfishly give help to all regardless 
of caste, and asked to become Christians by thousands. 
On the third of July, 1878, six native pastors baptized 
two thousand two hundred and twenty-two people, and 
by the end of the year the number had grown to nine 
thousand six hundred and six, making the Ongole Bap- 
tist church the largest in the world. Within ten years, 
twenty-five thousand converts were baptized, and a re- 
markable transformation had taken place among the 
humble outcastes." 1 

GROUP RESPONSE 

One feature of the response of the Untouchables to 
the preaching of the gospel puzzled the missionaries and 
caused some of them distress. That was group action. 
The missionaries in the main held to a very individual- 
istic interpretation of conversion. They sought to bring 
individuals to personal faith, repentance and pardon 
through independent action. But the Untouchables fre- 
quently came in groups to ask for Christian instruction 

1 Anna C. Swain, Youth Ufiafraid, p. 96-101. New York, Baptist Board 
of Education, 1935. 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 59 

Of to profess Christian faith and seek divine pardon. The 
missionaries did not understand that people who were 
accustomed to group action in all affairs of common in- 
terest, having been trained from infancy to subordinate 
personal choice to group decision, could not be expected 
to act otherwise in responding to the gospel. Urge a man 
with that background of group control to act independ- 
ently in a matter as vital as changing religious allegiance 
and you outrage his senses of propriety and ethics. In- 
sist that he abandon his fellows to become a Christian 
without first consulting them and trying to persuade 
them to act with him, and if he consents, he will start 
his Christian life with the handicap of a sense of guilt. 
Group decision is for most of India's Untouchables and 
for many others the most natural way of approach to 
Christ and, despite dangers, is much to be preferred to 
independent action. The preservation of social integra- 
tion is desirable in the interests of the convert's own 
spiritual life and of his influence upon his associates. 

THE POWER OF PREACHING 

The preaching of the cross of Christ has proved to be 
the power of God for multitudes of the Untouchables. 
It is the perfect antidote to the poison which Hindu 
teaching about karma, caste and reincarnation has in- 
jected into their souls. The assurances that Christ offers 
salvation to them on exactly the same terms as to the 
Brahman or the American, that God is not against them 



60 MOVING MILLIONS 

for their sins but is for them against their sins, and that, 
instead of being a despised, worthless people, they be- 
come, by virtue of their acceptance of Christ as Lord and 
Savior, the pioneers of a new social order, work radical 
changes in their outlook on life. These assurances are 
not made real and effective to them by the mere telling. 
Such words may fall upon the ear and be conveyed to the 
mind without being heard in the final sense of which 
Jesus spoke when at the end of a sermon he said, "If any 
man have ears to hear, let him hear." But preaching that 
arrests attention and leads to believing worship has this 
effect. 

TRANSFORMATION OF UNTOUCHABLES 
Communities of Untouchables where the Christian 
gospel has been received and worship established on 
lines that are meaningful and vital to the congregation 
of believers reveal a transformation that is remarkable 
and convincing. We have seen entire villages in which 
the despised Untouchables have been so enriched in per- 
sonality and so thoroughly reconstructed in character 
and conduct that erstwhile oppressors have accepted 
them as counselors in religion. A Brahman who recently 
applied for baptism and entrance to the church made 
this statement to the writer: "The Untouchables of this 
village were utterly vicious and degraded; they were 
illiterate, stupid, filthy and vile. In twenty years they 
have become honorable, clean, intelligent and God-fear- 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 6l 

ing. What no Hindu thought possible has been per- 
formed before our eyes. I know Christ is real. I love 
him for what he has done to the Untouchables. I want 
him to work a like change in my heart. My caste will 
oppress me but I will find peace and salvation." 

ASSETS OF THE NATION 

Scattered over India today are tens of thousands of 
Christians, men and women, engaged in public service 
as teachers, officials, doctors, nurses and preachers, whose 
parents or grandparents endured the oppressions and 
exhibited the characteristics common to the Untouch- 
ables. They who but for the coming of Christ in their 
homes would have been liabilities to the nation, poverty- 
stricken, despised, illiterate, diseased and dirty, a menace 
to every national interest, are among the nation's most 
valuable assets. 

Picture a gathering of citizens in an Indian city, called 
together to plan a fight against tuberculosis. The chair- 
man is a Moslem; the chief speaker a Hindu official of 
the Board of Health. On the platform with these men 
sits the principal of the Christian or mission high school 
in which both the chairman and the speaker were stu- 
dents two decades ago. Both men pay public tribute to 
the principal, their former teacher, as the man whose 
example and instruction had aroused in them the pur- 
pose to serve their fellow men. And who was that school 
principal? He was born in a Sweeper's hovel beside an 



62 MOVING MILLIONS 

open sewer. His father had lived and died as an illiterate, 
superstitious, undernourished, often sick and ever de- 
spised Untouchable. From that environment and that 
fate Christ lifted the son and made him the respected 
teacher, the beloved inspirer of youth, the friend of the 
sick and the suffering, a pioneer of the kingdom of 
brotherhood in the land of caste. 

No service of Christ to India through the modern mis- 
sionary movement has more truly enriched the nation 
than the changed status he has brought to Untouchable 
women who have become his disciples. In one large city 
one hundred and thirty Christian women of a single 
church, practically all products of a recent mass move- 
ment of Untouchables, are teaching in municipal schools. 
A Hindu school inspector said to the writer, "Education 
for girls in this generation would be impossible but for 
Christian women teachers." In one South India town a 
Bible woman from an Untouchable caste has organized 
a church consisting of more than thirty women who have 
been converted through her work. In a rural community 
a servant woman has been given a permanent seat in the 
pulpit of a church containing converts from twelve 
castes. Through her efforts the revival occurred in which 
this church was born. They count her a saint. 

THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN MASS MOVEMENTS 
The principle of group action in religion, as we have 
already indicated, was encountered in the earliest years 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 63 

of Protestant missions in India. But the policies gen- 
erally adopted by missionaries placed many restrictions 
upon the spread of Christian faith by that principle. Fear 
that converts would be led astray by their associates led 
many missionaries to protect them by isolation upon the 
mission compound and by a paternalism that resulted 
in the adoption of Western social patterns and modes of 
life. However, in the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, a wider movement took place in the far south which 
could not be dealt with so thoroughly. So many groups 
confessed faith in Christ that they had to be allowed to 
remain in their homes, and thereby escaped much of the 
denationalizing effect of the erroneous policy of the well 
intentioned missionary pioneers. The results were so 
good that the wiser ones among the missionaries revised 
their policies. Since then like movements have taken 
place in most of the provinces and in many cases have 
been whole-heartedly encouraged as their superior re- 
sults have been recognized. The Census of 1931 shows 
that the Indian Christian population increased in the 
preceding decade by 1,542,684 persons. A study of the 
areas of large growth has convinced the writer that this 
increase represents an annual average accession to the 
Christian community during that decade, through group 
movements by the underprivileged, of at least 125,000. 
Since 1931 the rate of growth of these movements has 
been accelerated, despite intense nationally organized 
and directed opposition. There must now be many mil- 



64 MOVING MILLIONS 

lions among the Untouchables who know something of 
these Christward movements and are considering 
whether they and their local groups should follow the 
trail of those who have abandoned the old ways of shame 
and moved toward Christ. 

MR. GANDHI AND CHRISTIAN CONVERSION 

That opposition to the conversion of the Untouchables 
should be voiced by Mr. Gandhi puzzles many Christian 
people. They have admired him and thought of him 
as an unbaptized Christian, or very nearly that. How- 
ever puzzling or incredible it may seem, it is true that 
Mr. Gandhi is aggressively opposing ail Christian work 
for the Untouchables that seeks to influence them in 
favor of conversion. His paper, The Harijan, contains 
frequent articles from his pen criticizing Christians who 
undertake to influence Untouchables in favor of Chris- 
tianity. With less than his customary sagacity Mr. Gandhi 
recently declared that the Untouchables are no more able 
to decide what religion is best for them than a cow would 
be. When this statement was criticized Mr. Gandhi 
sought to appease the Untouchables by widening it to 
take in many higher caste Hindus, including Mrs. 
Gandhi. He considers that missionaries who are unable 
to persuade him and his associates to become Christians 
should not approach the illiterate and unsophisticated 
Untouchables. One of the distinguished leaders of the 
Untouchables on reading Mr. Gandhi's remark described 




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64 MOVING MILLIONS 

lions among the Untouchables who know something of 
these Christward movements and are considering 
whether they and their local groups should follow the 
trail of those who have abandoned the old ways of shame 
and moved toward Christ. 

MR. GANDHI AND CHRISTIAN CONVERSION 
That opposition to the conversion of the Untouchables 
should be voiced by Mr. Gandhi puzzles many Christian 
people. They have admired him and thought of him 
as an unbaptized Christian, or very nearly that. How- 
ever puzzling or incredible it may seem, it is true that 
Mr. Gandhi is aggressively opposing all Christian work 
for the Untouchables that seeks to influence them in 
favor of conversion. His paper, The Harijan, contains 
frequent articles from his pen criticizing Christians who 
undertake to influence Untouchables in favor of Chris- 
tianity. With less than his customary sagacity Mr. Gandhi 
recently declared that the Untouchables are no more able 
to decide what religion is best for them than a cow would 
be. When this statement was criticized Mr. Gandhi 
sought to appease the Untouchables by widening it to 
take in many higher caste Hindus, including Mrs. 
Gandhi. He considers that missionaries who are unable 
to persuade him and his associates to become Christians 
should not approach the illiterate and unsophisticated 
Untouchables. One of the distinguished leaders of the 
Untouchables on reading Mr. Gandhi's remark described 






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THE UNTOUCHABLES 65 

it as "the crowning insult" and added, "The higher castes 
who have oppressed us for centuries now find in Mr. 
Gandhi a spokesman who forbids the messengers of the 
Savior to communicate with us." Another such leader 
calls Mr. Gandhi "the public enemy number one of my 
people," and claims that Mr. Gandhi's program of open- 
ing the temples of Hinduism for the Untouchables 
would complete their enslavement to the exploiting 
classes. "In only one area of our lives have we been 
free. We were not allowed to enter the temples of Hin- 
duism and so hitherto could worship as we pleased." 

In fairness to Mr. Gandhi it should be remembered 
that while opposing conversion he is vigorously fight- 
ing against Untouchability and has inspired a great army 
of his fellow religionists to help meet the social and 
economic needs of the Untouchables. He welcomes co- 
operation of Christians in seeking to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the oppressed so long as they do not seek to 
induce a change of faith or, perhaps we might say fairly, 
so long as they do not encourage the renunciation of the 
Hindu name. 

"Nor should we overlook the peculiar relation de- 
veloped in India between the religion to which one is 
accredited and his social pattern, the civil law by which 
he is governed and his political relationships. In several 
provinces Christians vote in a communal electorate and 
every conversion to Christianity reduces the numerical 
strength of the general electorate in which Hindus pre- 
ponderate." 




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THE UNTOUCHABLES 65 

it as "the crowning insult" and added, "The higher castes 
who have oppressed us for centuries now find in Mr. 
Gandhi a spokesman who forbids the messengers of the 
Savior to communicate with us." Another such leader 
calls Mr. Gandhi "the public enemy number one of my 
people," and claims that Mr. Gandhi's program of open- 
ing the temples of Hinduism for the Untouchables 
would complete their enslavement to the exploiting 
classes. "In only one area of our lives have we been 
free. We were not allowed to enter the temples of Hin- 
duism and so hitherto could worship as we pleased." 

In fairness to Mr. Gandhi it should be remembered 
that while opposing conversion he is vigorously fight- 
ing against Untouchability and has inspired a great army 
of his fellow religionists to help meet the social and 
economic needs of the Untouchables. He welcomes co- 
operation of Christians in seeking to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the oppressed so long as they do not seek to 
induce a change of faith or, perhaps we might say fairly, 
so long as they do not encourage the renunciation of the 
Hindu name. 

"Nor should we overlook the peculiar relation de- 
veloped in India between the religion to which one is 
accredited and his social pattern, the civil law by which 
he is governed and his political relationships. In several 
provinces Christians vote in a communal electorate and 
every conversion to Christianity reduces the numerical 
strength of the general electorate in which Hindus pre- 
ponderate." 



66 MOVING MILLIONS 

THE EMERGENCE OF DR. AMBEDKAR 
The most able and dynamic leader of the Untouch- 
ables is Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, principal of the Gov- 
ernment Law College in Bombay and leader of the 
United Labor Party in the Bombay Legislative Assembly. 
Dr. Ambedkar's career is stranger and more romantic 
than any tale of fiction. Although his father, as a soldier 
in the Indian army, lived on a plane definitely above the 
common level of Untouchables, when the son presented 
himself for enrollment in a government primary school 
the Hindu teacher tried to persuade him to go home. An 
appeal to a government official resulted in his enroll- 
ment, but the surly teacher made him sit apart from the 
other children and refused to instruct him. Nevertheless, 
encouraged only by his father, he was determined to 
learn and year by year, fighting for his opportunity, he 
advanced from class to class while the higher caste boys, 
whom the teacher and the public encouraged, and who 
persisted in treating him as untouchable and stupid, 
dropped out. A majority of them never learned to read 
but went back into their villages to boast of their su- 
periority and to take up from their elders the age-old 
oppression of the "inferior" castes. 

High school and college the determined young man 
took in his stride. No subject held him back or presented 
any terrors for him. The teacher who first objected to 
enrolling him had stalled at the seventh class. Other 
teachers who had insulted him, watched in bewilder- 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 67 

ment as he swept easily past them. When he was gradu- 
ated from college, seemingly at the end of his formal 
study, the impossible happened. A Hindu prince, the 
Gaekwar of Baroda, offered him a scholarship for for- 
eign study. He proceeded to Edinburgh, thence to Lon- 
don, later to Columbia University in New York, Bonn 
in Germany and back to London. At length he returned 
to India a master of arts, a doctor of philosophy, a doctor 
of science and a barrister. 

DISILLUSIONMENT 

While abroad he had, as most students from India do, 
idealized his homeland. The oppressions of his youth 
receded to the hinterland of his memory and he dreamed 
of returning to India to be proudly acclaimed for the 
record he had made and the honors he had won. A cruel 
disillusionment awaited him. To the caste Hindus he 
remained an Untouchable. He was unable to rent quar- 
ters, either for office or residence. His benefactor, the 
Gaekwar, offered him honorable employment but the 
subjects of His Highness were less liberal. He resigned 
and went to Bombay. 

This move brought upon him a severe temptation. 
Bombay, as the chief port of entrance for Western in- 
fluence and a commercial metropolis, is more inclined 
than the rest of the country to accept a man for what he 
is, without inquiring about his caste or background. He 
thought of opening an office as a lawyer, isolating him- 



68 MOVING MILLIONS 

self from his people, and building up a practice by sheer 
ability, with his clients ignorant of his Untouchable 
origin. While in the West he had become an agnostic and 
a confirmed secularist. He had resolved to leave religion 
alone and as far as possible dismiss it from consideration. 
But he possessed ideals and they could not easily be 
dismissed. The thought of abandoning his people dis- 
turbed him. "Why," he asked, "have I been so fortunate? 
Why have I alone of India's Untouchables received such 
opportunities? Surely not for my personal advantage 
only! I have a duty to perform. I must help those who 
suffer the persecution from which I in a large measure 
have escaped." 

So he went to Bombay as an Untouchable and with 
the practice of law began simultaneously social service 
for his people. This led him quickly into politics and six 
years after his return to India he was appointed to repre- 
sent the Untouchables at the Round Table Conference 
in London where he joined representatives of the British 
Parliament in planning a new constitution for the Gov- 
ernment of India. Here he came into dramatic conflict 
with Mr. Gandhi. The latter, sitting in the Conference as 
the sole representative of the Indian National Congress, 
challenged Dr. Ambedkar's right to speak in behalf of 
the Untouchables and claimed that right as his own. 
Many in England and India were amazed at the spectacle 
of the young Untouchable, only six years out of college, 
and probably the youngest member of the Conference, 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 69 

opposing Mr. Gandhi as no other member of the Con- 
ference dared to do. But while others wondered the Un- 
touchables thrilled. They left no doubt of their choice 
between the antagonists. In hundreds of massed meetings 
they declared Ambedkar to be their leader and spokes- 
man. 

THE FIGHT FOR A SHARE IN LAW-MAKING 
The issue on which Dr. Ambedkar and Mr. Gandhi 
fought was whether the Untouchables and other de- 
pressed classes should acquire the right to elect their own 
representatives in the legislatures, or should be included 
in a general electorate. Mr. Gandhi argued that separate 
representation is unnecessary and inconsistent with dem- 
ocratic principles. Dr. Ambedkar argued that it is es- 
sential to the welfare of the oppressed, that without it 
democracy would mean delivering them into the hands 
of their enemies. When the Conference could not agree 
on the issue of communal representation the Prime Min- 
ister was made arbiter and awarded a separate franchise 
and a specified number of reserved seats to the Un- 
touchables, the Moslems and certain other minor com- 
munities. Dr. Ambedkar had won against Mr. Gandhi! 
A few months later when both were back in India they 
clashed again with the same result. Dr. Ambedkar was 
now established as a powerful force in the political life 
of the nation. 



70 MOVING MILLIONS 

AN EXPERIENCE WITH PRAYER 
During the Round Table Conference Dr. Ambedkar 
had an experience which registered and strengthened a 
changing attitude toward religion. When the pressure 
was upon him to yield to Mr. Gandhi he prayed. He did 
not want to pray. He thought that he did not believe in 
prayer and was rather ashamed to pray. But he could not 
help praying. And as he prayed something happened. 
He was conscious of a release of power and a clarifi- 
cation of mind. He felt that the future of tens of millions 
of his people depended upon his action and that the 
course he had purposed to take was right. For him the 
issue was no longer in doubt. He felt that a wisdom 
greater than his own and a power outside of him and 
greater than his had come to his help. 

RELIGION CONDEMNED AND RELIGION REQUIRED 
Returning to India his thought turned instinctively 
and persistently to religion. He found the religious con- 
cepts of his people interfering with ail of his efforts to 
open up new avenues of opportunity for them. His hopes 
of accomplishment through social service and political 
activity shrank as they were subjected to trial. The con- 
viction formed that the fundamental need of his people 
was a new body of religious concepts, a new set of ideas 
about themselves in relation to society and to God. He 
resolved to study the great religions and to call upon 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 71 

his people throughout India to renounce Hinduism as 
the agent of their oppression. He carefully prepared the 
way and at a political conference of Untouchables in 
October, 1935, he denounced Hinduism in words that 
electrified India and are apparently destined to live down 
the centuries. But more significant, he went on to declare 
his purpose to adopt some other religion. "It is not my 
fault that I was born a Hindu. But to die as a Hindu 
would be a disgrace. I will adopt a religion which is no 
enemy to my self-respect." His audience of more than 
ten thousand enthusiastically responded. They rose and 
cheered and whooped with delight that such a leader 
had appeared among them. Then they solemnly re- 
nounced Hinduism and pledged that they would follow 
their leader into whatever religion he would choose as 
best for them. 

SOULS FOR AUCTION? 

As this news spread great excitement developed in 
India. Hundreds of gatherings of Untouchables were 
held, in many of which resolutions supporting Dr. Am- 
bedkar were adopted. Hindu politicians were alarmed, 
fearing a mass exodus from Hinduism. Moslems were 
elated, visualizing many millions added to their num- 
bers. Many .Christians were bewildered, puzzled by the 
declaration and fearing that religion would be dragged 
down to the level of competitive bidding for purely 
nominal adherents, 



72 MOVING MILLIONS 

Some of Dr. Ambedkar's early declarations were un- 
fortunately worded. They suggested to many readers 
that he was either engaged in a political maneuver or 
was expecting to recommend acceptance of the faith 
whose representatives promised the most in material in- 
ducements. Without his approval certain minor leaders, 
professing agreement with his purpose, organized con- 
ferences in which speakers presented claims for their 
faiths. Abroad there was talk of sixty million people 
simultaneously adopting a new religion. 

Dr. Ambedkar is being subjected to terrific pressure 
to desist from his efforts. Hindu leaders assure him that 
he has already accomplished what they assume to be his 
real purpose, namely to compel a reform within Hindu- 
ism. He has announced no decision. In the meantime 
many of his followers are growing restless and asking 
him to indicate at least the direction of his thinking. 

THE GREAT DECISION 

What will Dr. Ambedkar decide? How will his de- 
cision be received? We cannot anticipate his announce- 
ment. He will make it in his own time and in his own 
way. It is known, however, that he is eagerly studying 
Christianity. He has spoken of the appeal which the 
Gospels and certain passages in the Epistles of St. Paul 
made to his heart. He has also criticized the Christian 
church as he has met it in western India. Will he advise 
his people to turn to Christ, or to Islam, Buddhism or 



THE UNTOUCHABLES 73 

Sikhism, or will he go no further with his plans? These 
questions we cannot answer. 

THE CHRISTIAN PROSPECT 

But whatever Dr. Ambedkar may do, the Christian 
church has a duty to perform and an opportunity to 
utilize in connection with the Untouchables. Neither be- 
gan with Dr. Ambedkar's declaration. The Untouchables 
have always needed Christ and whenever the gospel has 
been widely proclaimed among them some have accepted 
him. They are turning to him now in larger numbers 
than ever before. There are many indications that in- 
creasing numbers will seek to know him in the years that 
are just ahead. Hardly a week passes without news reach- 
ing the writer of new groups asking for Christian instruc- 
tion and leadership in worship. As we have been writing 
this chapter an appeal has come for three evangelists to 
be placed in an area twenty miles from the nearest mis- 
sion station, where eight hundred people of Dr. Ambed- 
kar's own caste have declared their desire to follow 
Christ and to bring relatives and friends to him. Dur- 
ing the same time an appeal has come from an Indian 
minister for advice on how to deal with thirty families 
who have begun to call themselves Christians though 
they are not baptized, have had no instruction, and live 
so far away that no regular ministerial service can be 
provided for them. 

Radical changes in the attitude of Hindus toward the 



74 MOVING MILLIONS 

Untouchables are undoubtedly taking place. The results 
may be more apparent in discussions in the legislatures 
and the press than in the experience of the average vic- 
tim of untouchability. But no competent student of so- 
cial trends in India can doubt that Hinduism is going to 
make a serious effort to appease the anger of the Un- 
touchables. Mr. Gandhi's Harijan Sevak Sangh (Society 
for the Service of the Untouchables) is already making 
an organized effort to that end. An Untouchable leader 
who has been in close touch with Moslem propagandists 
said to the writer a few weeks ago, "The Moslems give 
me an impression that they want us for political purposes 
of their own and that they are ready to do much for us. 
Everywhere they will fight to end our oppressions. They 
will compel the Hindus to stop this foolishness of for- 
bidding us to draw water from the village wells. Never- 
theless, taking the long view, we see that it would be 
good neither for us nor for the country, for us to become 
Moslems." 

The Christian church in India is more missionary 
minded today than it has ever been. And its missionary 
efforts are directed toward the Untouchables more gen- 
erally than ever before. But the Christian task in India 
belongs to all Christian people who are able to help, and 
the Untouchables need the love, the prayers and the co- 
operation of representatives of all who love the Lord 
Jesus in the churches of North America and Europe. 



CHAPTER III 
INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 

By ALICE B. VAN DOREN 
"As go the villages, so goes India." KENYON A. BUTTERFIELD 

AtlGH-POWERED motor car attempts to pass 
through the narrow streets of a large Indian 
village, but the power is of no effect and the 
engine stalls, for it finds itself in the midst of a traffic 
jam. Just ahead, and traveling in the opposite direction, 
are two high carts with heavy wooden wheels; one cart 
moves to the right and the other to the left so that the 
entire road is blocked. From behind comes a herd of 
gigantic black buffaloes, successfully blocking the bor- 
ders of the highway. A mixed flock or herd of sheep 
and goats, several stray hens, and here and there a 
bright-eyed toddling child fill in the cracks and crevices 
of the traffic. A droning sound is heard over-head and 
immediately a crowd of men and boys collect from no- 
where in particular to gaze upward at a small speck 
which presently develops into an Imperial Airways 
plane carrying the mail to Calcutta. 

So this is India; the air mail at two hundred miles an 
hour; the motor at sixty; the ox-cart at two, all function- 
ing at the same point of time and space. What else can 
this be but an era of confusion ? 

75 



76 MOVING MILLIONS 

While the motor waits for the traffic jam to break up, 
we search for other signs of the confusion of eras. Yon- 
der is a tailor's shop; the man's bare feet are working the 
treadle of a Singer sewing machine. From the house of 
the village headman comes the sound of a cheap and 
tinny phonograph first an ancient and beloved Indian 
tune sung by a new musical "star"; then some recent 
jazz from a London music hall. In the general shop of 
the bazaar, next to the bamboo baskets of grains and con- 
diments, are all sorts of products from the industrialized 
countries of the West galvanized iron buckets sup- 
planting brass pots, hurricane lanterns from Germany, 
matches from Sweden, cloth from Manchester, cheap 
toys from Japan, Standard Oil from New York. 

Just at this moment new sounds attack the ear a 
laboring engine, the grinding of brakes, an incessant and 
deafening horn. A motor bus carrying twice the legiti- 
mate number of passengers, and with its top loaded with 
vast accretions of tin trunks, bundles, buckets, cooking 
pots, and household goods of infinite variety, whirls pre- 
cariously around a corner and by some miracle of Provi- 
dence arrives in the midst of babies, buffaloes, and hens 
without destroying a single life. In the wheezing, over- 
crowded bus we see the climax of rural change in India. 
An occasional airplane may fly overhead and cause won- 
der to the bazaar; a high-powered car or a humble Ford 
may pass through the streets and divert the inhabitants 
as they watch the strange dress and ways of its occu- 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 77 

pants; but the bus is the villager's own possession. In it 
he travels at twenty miles an hour instead of two. In it 
the peasant goes to the town and the town with its new 
ways and alluring products comes to the countryside. 

DRASTIC CHANGES IN VILLAGE LIFE 

From this impact of the machine age upon a primitive 
rural tradition, confusion results. New desires impinge 
upon ancient poverty. People desire to travel upon 
busses and trains, to possess toy balloons, electric 
torches, phonographs, and bicycles, to attend the mo- 
tion pictures in the nearest town. The new urge is there, 
but not the. means of fulfillment, for there has been no 
increase in the eight cents or the handful of grain that 
constitutes the daily income. If the new desires are to be 
fulfilled, either the peasant must sink deeper into the 
slough of debt, or he must emigrate to the city and be 
absorbed into the ranks of the mill workers, or too often 
into the proletarian army of the unemployed. Or if he 
comes from the emigrant sections of India the Tamil 
and Telugu countries of the south, Gujarat on the west, 
or Chota Nagpur on the east he will trek further 
afield, to the tea gardens of Assam or Ceylon, the rub- 
ber plantations of the Malay Peninsula, or the mines 
and cities of South Africa. A survey of a very small 
Christian village in South India revealed the fact that 
members of its homes had wandered all the way to 
Burma on the east and the Persian Gulf on the west. 



78 MOVING MILLIONS 

But changes in the village are not merely physical, 
they are psychological as well. A keen student of village 
life writes as follows: "The other day I saw two sewing 
machines in a Chamar (leather-worker's) house in a 
village, and I found a Chamar woman sewing for some 
patrons. This transfer of the seamster's duties to a 
leather-worker is a matter of more significance to the ex- 
isting social and economic order than if I had found 
good cattle, good food, a well ventilated house, a fodder 
cutter, and many other things which our rural recon- 
structionists are introducing in village homes. In another 
village I found leather-workers selling ghi (clarified but- 
ter) in the village. This has been the prerogative of the 
milkmen caste and no leather-worker would dare to 
leave his leather work or field work for such a business. 
.... Upsetting the existing social and economic order 
is a matter with endless implications." 1 

What is bringing about these changes in thought and 
action? Causes are many and complex, and to go into 
them deeply is beyond the scope of this chapter or its 
author. Yet some are clearly evident. First there are 
those very material changes described above the im- 
pact of western science and trade upon the life of the 
Indian peasant. 

LEADERS OF CHANGING CONDITIONS 
There are also the rapid political and social changes 
which are churning to the bottom the thought and life of 



1 W. H. Wiser, "Economics of Poverty." 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 79 

the Indian nation. First in order of time comes Mr. 
Gandhi with his fight against untouchability the sys- 
tem that segregates the outcaste from the amenities and 
social privileges of the Indian community somewhat as 
the social system of the Southern States segregates the 
Negro from the life of his white neighbors. Mr. Gandhi 
is himself living in a village and experimenting with sub- 
sidiary industries such as spinning, weaving, bee-keeping, 
etc., for the benefit of outcaste as well as caste folk. 

Dr. Ambedkar, quite unsatisfied with either the scope 
or speed of Mr. Gandhi's reforms, has led the revolt of 
his fellow castemen, demanding complete withdrawal 
from the Hindu system. I have myself attended a mass 
meeting of a thousand or more outcastes, in which Dr. 
Ambedkar's picture, carried in a palanquin, was given 
the place of honor on the platform while shouts and 
cheers announced victory for his campaign and "boy- 
cott" for the caste system. 

Thirdly, Pundit Nehru comes forward with a pro- 
gram of action that is socialistic as well as political. His 
ideal is to free the Indian peasant from capitalistic 
domination, Indian as well as European. He knows vil- 
lage life both from theoretical study and from actual ex- 
perience, is organizer and leader of peasants' associa- 
tions, and is regarded with passionate devotion by the 
North India peasantry who throng the courtyards of his 
town house in Allahabad. His magnetic personality and 
strong influence in Congress circles are putting the 



80 MOVING MILLIONS 

claims of the villager before the country with a new 
forcefulness. He declares that mere political independ- 
ence would only shift economic domination from the 
British to the Indian capitalist and would achieve little 
unless accompanied by a reform of the whole economic 
system. 

At the same time, Government is awakening to its re- 
sponsibilities for the uplift of rural India. Mr. F. L. 
Brayne, a government official of the Punjab, has spent 
many years in carrying out a practical program of rural 
reconstruction. Though this program has suffered from 
too great a measure of external authority and compul- 
sion, and is apt to come to a halt when the external 
pressure is removed, yet much has been done in the dem- 
onstration of hygienic and agricultural improvement. 
The present Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, has a genuine 
interest in the welfare of rural India, particularly in the 
improvement of village cattle. He has "set the fashion" 
for presenting stud bulls of good breed to groups of 
villages to improve the quality of the local cattle. 

Apart from Nationalists and government officials, 
there are other instigators of change who have worked 
in less conspicuous ways during the past century. Chris- 
tian missionaries and Christian Indians have found their 
teaching accepted by hundreds of thousands of village 
folk, a majority of them outcastes at the very bottom of 
the social scale. The message of God's equal love and 
care for all his children and of the brotherhood taught 



80 MOVING MILLIONS 

claims of the villager before the country with a new 
forcefulness. He declares that mere political independ- 
ence would only shift economic domination from the 
British to the Indian capitalist and would achieve little 
unless accompanied by a reform of the whole economic 
system. 

At the same time, Government is awakening to its re- 
sponsibilities for the uplift of rural India. Mr. F. L. 
Brayne, a government official of the Punjab, has spent 
many years in carrying out a practical program of rural 
reconstruction. Though this program has suffered from 
too great a measure of external authority and compul- 
sion, and is apt to come to a halt when the external 
pressure is removed, yet much has been done in the dem- 
onstration of hygienic and agricultural improvement. 
The present Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, has a genuine 
interest in the welfare of rural India, particularly in the 
improvement of village cattle. He has "set the fashion" 
for presenting stud bulls of good breed to groups of 
villages to improve the quality of the local cattle. 

Apart from Nationalists and government officials, 
there are other instigators of change who have worked 
in less conspicuous ways during the past century. Chris- 
tian missionaries and Christian Indians have found their 
teaching accepted by hundreds of thousands of village 
folk, a majority of them outcastes at the very bottom of 
the social scale. The message of God's equal love and 
care for all his children and of the brotherhood taught 




John L. Goheen 



SANGLI MOVABLE SCHOOL ALL LOADED 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 81 

by Christ has put into the life of the Untouchable a 
leaven whose working knows no limit. Though less con- 
spicuous and sensational than these later manifestations, 
the era of change started by Christian missions is now 
causing the greatest social upheaval known in India's 
history. The leaven is working, but it has not yet pene- 
trated very far into the lump. Even the superficial changes 
described in the opening paragraphs of this chapter 
would not be found to any great extent in isolated vil- 
lages back from the main roads that permit motor travel. 

NEEDS OF VILLAGE LIFE: LITERACY 

As we go on to consider the chief needs of the village, 
a word of caution is not superflous. Village life does 
not represent the whole of India. The Indian who loves 
his country objects rightly to a description that deals only 
with her submerged masses. In reading of rural needs let 
us not forget India's heritage of art and culture and music, 
her present-day scholarship, and the self-sacrificing ef- 
forts of her patriotic sons and daughters to solve this vast 
problem of rural distress. However, the need is there, and 
its removal calls for the help of all agencies Nationalist, 
Government and Christian. 

Among the many needs of the villager literacy may be 
placed foremost. Without the use of the "tools of learn- 
ing" he is left helpless in his conflict with destructive 
forces. Culture may be transmitted through oral tradi- 
tion, through drama, and the song and tale of the bard; 




John L. Goheen 



SANGLI MOVABLE SCHOOL ALL LOADED 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 81 

by Christ has put into the life of the Untouchable a 
leaven whose working knows no limit. Though less con- 
spicuous and sensational than these later manifestations, 
the era of change started by Christian missions is now 
causing the greatest social upheaval known in India's 
history. The leaven is working, but it has not yet pene- 
trated very far into the lump. Even the superficial changes 
described in the opening paragraphs of this chapter 
would not be found to any great extent in isolated vil- 
lages back from the main roads that permit motor travel. 

NEEDS OF VILLAGE LIFE: LITERACY 

As we go on to consider the chief needs of the village, 
a word of caution is not superflous. Village life does 
not represent the whole of India. The Indian who loves 
his country objects rightly to a description that deals only 
with her submerged masses. In reading of rural needs let 
us not forget India's heritage of art and culture and music, 
her present-day scholarship, and the self-sacrificing ef- 
forts of her patriotic sons and daughters to solve this vast 
problem of rural distress. However, the need is there, and 
its removal calls for the help of all agencies Nationalist, 
Government and Christian. 

Among the many needs of the villager literacy may be 
placed foremost. Without the use of the "tools of learn- 
ing" he is left helpless in his conflict with destructive 
forces. Culture may be transmitted through oral tradi- 
tion, through drama, and the song and tale of the bard; 



82 MOVING MILLIONS 

but oral tradition cannot help the borrower to check up 
the money lender's falsified account, nor enable him to 
read the legal document that concerns his ownership of 
land. Oral tradition cannot keep him in touch with the 
movements of the modern world nor can it help to free 
him from the bonds of superstitious fear. Yet with all 
the talk that abounds concerning the promotion of liter- 
acy, according to the last census its advance in ten years 
has kept ahead of the population increase by only eight- 
tenths of one per cent. Dr. Frank C. Laubach estimates 
that at the present rate of increase it will require eleven 
hundred and fifty years for India to become as literate as 
Japan. 

Many children who achieve a small degree of literacy 
in school, lose in a few years the little they have learned. 
It is generally supposed that in order to insure perma- 
nent literacy, a child must advance to the fourth class. 
Also the retention of literacy depends upon other factors 
life among other literates, preferably in a literate home, 
and the accessibility of easy and interesting reading ma- 
terial. In the case of the majority of village children, 
neither of these desirable conditions exists. 

Another hindrance to literacy is the extreme complex- 
ity of the Indian alphabets marvels of phonetic per- 
fection but many of them with three hundred to five 
hundred characters, including vowels, consonants, and 
combinations which present a great obstacle to the 
would-be learner. Still another difficulty lies in the dif- 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 83 

ference between the classical literary language of the 
school books, and the ordinary colloquial speech o the 
villager. If American first and second readers were writ- 
ten in the vocabulary and style of Shakespeare and Mil- 
ton, American children might sympathize to a small 
degree with the difficulties of the child in the Indian vil- 
lage. Christian missions are feeling as never before their 
obligation to contribute to the spread of literacy, yet the 
percentage of literacy among Christians fell slightly 
within the past ten years, because of the mass influx of 
illiterate outcastes. Without Bible-reading Christians it 
is impossible to envisage a pure and spiritually minded 
church. 

VILLAGE SCHOOLS 

Ever since the visit to India of the Village Education 
Commission in 1920, there has been an effort among 
Indians and missionaries of vision to promote a new 
type of village school that will teach not only the tools 
of learning found in the Three R's; but will carry on 
such an activity program as will integrate the school with 
the life of the village and the home. The Christian 
school at Moga in the Punjab has been the pioneer in- 
stitution in training village teachers for this type of 
education. So successful has it been that the Government 
Department of Education in the Punjab now sends its 
inspecting officers and headmasters to annual refresher 
courses at Moga, and the whole of primary education 



84 MOVING MILLIONS 

in that great and progressive province has been led into 
new ways through the efforts of this one school. 

A personal letter from Western India tells of the fol- 
lowing developments: "Our little town goes rural- 
minded! Always has been so, but now more than ever. 
The first sight to meet my eye as we drove through the 
gates after an absence of seven months was the little 
herd of graded Janmapari goats belonging to the girls' 
school, grazing peacefully in the field. As we whi2zed 
by, I saw hens, clear white hens with fine red combs, 
hens here, there, everywhere the flocks of the school 
by means of which the girls are being taught the possi- 
bilities in poultry. Then fields, all green with growing 
grain; here the black buffalo, giving six seers (approxi- 
mately quarts) of milk a day; there the white bullocks, 
our draft animals; then more white hens and cocks 
this time the flock of the district missionary who sells 
the graded stock, practically full-blooded leghorns, 
into the villages as fast as calls come. Today he had 
a call for 300 eggs and ten cocks! Then the girls' 
school, more girls than ever, busier than ever, all 
seemingly intent on some business in hand though 
they find time to get into mischief. The chicken-rais- 
ing, goat-keeping, sewing and cooking classes go on 
even though the girls still have the regular government 
curriculum. Then the library! For years it has been a 
dream and yesterday one hundred and twenty-five per- 
sons made use of it. On its tables are magazines and 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 85 

Dooks in three languages. The room is light and airy; a 
pressure kerosene lamp makes it possible to keep it 
)pen in the evening. Now the request for courses in 
ilural Improvement has come from the people them- 
>elves through the library, next we hope to meet that 
iced." 

Among high schools, the one that has pioneered most 
fruitfully is Ushagram at Asansol, Bengal. Its lines of 
special activity include interests as diverse as Indian 
art on the one hand, and the installation of cheap septic 
tanks on the other. There are great numbers of other 
schools, that are working quietly in all parts of India to 
revolutionize the type of education for the village child. 
In general it may be said that elementary education has 
been more successful than secondary in achieving this 
change of emphasis. Elementary schools are less exam- 
ination-centered, and less bound by the red tape of a 
Government-ordered curriculum. They are also closer to 
village life and conditions. 

ADULT EDUCATION 

But we in India are realizing with ever increasing 
clearness that education of children can never be 
enough. At first thought one feels that it ought to be 
enough, for children are the hope of the world. Why 
bother with adults whose habits and attitudes are al- 
ready set; they will not live very long and "while there 
is death there is hope" at least for the new generation. 



86 MOVING MILLIONS 

But further consideration shows the fallacy in this super- 
ficial thinking. A child may be educated in a social 
vacuum many schools are best described by that word; 
but he cannot live in a vaccum. That is the reason why 
so many pupils who leave mission schools revert not 
only Into illiteracy but into primitive standards of life 
and morals. A child cannot rise very far above his par- 
ents, a wife above her husband, or a husband above his 
wife. In India even more than in the individualistic 
West, the individual, the family and the social group 
must move together. Adult education must accompany 
child education ; adult literacy, child literacy, if either is 
to be permanent. 

Dr. Frank Laubach of the Philippines, beginning his 
work among the Moros of Mindanao, has developed a 
method of teaching adults through which whole peoples 
can readily become literate in their own language. He 
recently spent several months in India and gave great 
inspiration and help in carrying forward a nation-wide 
campaign for the removal of illiteracy. Everywhere he 
found keen interest, and an astonishing number of 
people beginning to experiment, including both Chris- 
tians and non-Christians. Says Dr. Laubach, "The new 
approach works like magic. We have lessons in Marathi, 
Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Mal- 
ialam and Kanarese. Each of these has its own distinct 
alphabet. The Congress committee which works with 
Mr. Gandhi asked me to sit with them in Allahabad to 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 87 

discuss the new alphabet. The chairman and I worked 
out an alphabet that has only sixteen distinct sounds, 
and yet contains every letter they need. The new method 
which we have developed meets with the four require- 
ments: rapid progress in learning; easy to teach with- 
out training; fascinating; cheap two cents a book." 1 
From conferences with interested groups there emerged 
certain definite needs and plans for the advance of liter- 
acy, among which are the following: 

1. The need for simple and interesting methods for 
the rapid teaching of adults. Under Dr. Laubach's guid- 
ance, such methods have been discovered and applied 
to the production of inexpensive charts and primers, 
which have been printed and are now being experi- 
mented with. 

2. The need for very simple reading material in an in- 
expensive form. This must be written in words familiar 
to the villager, and must deal with matters in which 
adults are naturally interested ; readers for little children 
are not suitable. For the use of Christians and for evan- 
gelistic effort among non-Christians three gospel primers 
have already been published, one of them being "The 
Story of the Cross." 

3. The need to engage multitudes of individuals in the 
task of teaching. The movement has adopted as its 
slogan, "Each one teach one." The hope is that each 

1 "Like Trying To Tear Down the Himalayas," The Missionary Herald, 
July, 1937, p. 283. 



88 MOVING MILLIONS 

adult pupil, after receiving a lesson, will go and teach 
it to two friends before he comes for his second lesson. 
4. The need for enlisting the aid of students in this ef- 
fort. A few schools and colleges have already entered 
upon this form of vacation service; and in some cases 
during term time the school or college servants are 
taught. At the last meeting of the Board of Governors 
of Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow, perhaps the 
most interesting feature of the day was a procession of 
all those in the college compound who had learned to 
read, together with their teachers. 

SANITATION AND HEALTH 

Education is not the only need of the village. Sani- 
tation and health, economic uplift, a new attitude 
toward women, and a new view of God that frees from 
sin, supersition and fear, are all basic requirements for 
the redemption of village life. All these needs form a 
vicious circle. To destroy this circle it must be broken 
into at as many arcs as possible. When the late Dr. Ken- 
yon L. Butterfield visited India a few years ago, he advo- 
cated the establishment by Christian missions of "rural 
units" that would attack simultaneously at many points 
the problems of rural reconstruction. An important prin- 
ciple is that changes should come from the cooperation 
of villagers themselves, and not through external com- 
pulsion. 

The need for medical help is pressing and most dif- 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 89 

ficult to supply. Illness is rife. Hookworm, guinea 
worm, malaria, typhoid, cholera, and many other pre- 
ventable diseases take their toll of efficiency and often of 
life. Among Christian agencies, various experiments are 
being tried. In some places a doctor camps in a central 
village, and patients from adjacent villages come daily 
to the tent-dispensary. 

ECONOMIC UPLIFT 

Another pressing need is that for economic improve- 
ment. Much 'enlightenment on this subject has come 
from the investigations of Dr. and Mrs. William H. 
Wiser of the North India Presbyterian Mission. For five 
successive cold seasons they and their two little sons 
lived in tents on the outskirts of a typical North India 
village, to which they have given the fictitious name of 
Karimpur. In a book called Behind Mud Walls, 1 Dr. 
and Mrs. Wiser have given a fascinating and intimate 
account of the life of the twenty-four castes that live as 
a complete unit or "commune" in that village organiza- 
tion. Through five years of friendship based on medical 
service and the give and take of daily intercourse, the 
Wiser family became friends with Brahmans and 
Sweepers alike, and were given close-up views of the 
self-contained social and economic structure into which 
the castes of a village of some seven hundred souls are 

'New York, Harper & Brothers, 1930. 



90 MOVING MILLIONS 

welded. In a recent book 1 Dr. Wiser has explained 
with scientific accuracy the complicated system of serv- 
ice and privilege which through two thousand years 
has been built into the caste system of Indian life. 
It is a system of wonderful complexity which insures 
against unemployment and insecurity and prevents in- 
dividualism by subordinating the individual entirely 
to the service of his family, caste and village. Each 
member of a caste serves the community and in turn 
is served by it. For example, the potter provides the 
village with clay water-jars and cooking vessels, and 
in return is served by the priest, the washerman, the 
water carrier, the tailor, the carpenter, and the scav- 
enger. Most of this work is carried on without money 
transaction, remuneration being provided either by 
exchange of service or by payments in kind, such 
as grain or other kinds of food. There is much in 
the system that India needs to retain, and much that 
western civilization might well envy. The chief counts 
against it are its discouragement of personal initiative, 
and the inflexibility which prevents an able and gifted 
person born in an Untouchable caste from improving his 
condition or rising to a position of leadership. 

AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS 

Workers for economic improvement have two prime 
purposes. The first is the reform of agriculture through 

1 W. H. Wiser, The Hindu Jajmaw System, Section I. Lucknow Pub- 
lishing House, Lucknow, India, 1936. 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 91 

the introduction of better animals, better seed, better 
agricultural implements, and more diversified crops. To 
further this ideal, Christian missions have founded agri- 
cultural schools in various parts of the country. 

An interesting piece of extension work is done by the 
Sangli Movable School. This consists of a Ford 1^ ton 
truck with commodious body in which is carried almost 
every conceivable article useful for village uplift work. 
There are illustrated charts and posters, touching upon 
phases of village life; there is a traveling dispensary; 
there is a circulating library; a crate or two of chickens 
and a couple of good milk goats have a stall in the 
truck. That commodious body and those charts and 
posters are Sangli-made. There are all kinds of seed sam- 
ples for field and garden crops. Then this Movable 
School has its own portable generating Unit, also stere- 
opticon and 16mm movie projector. At night the sur- 
roundings are lit up like fairy-land, and there have been 
as many as 3,500 people sitting out in the open for the 
illustrated lectures. What opportunities for reaching 
needy people through eye-gate and ear-gate! The pro- 
gram of this Movable School aims to touch every phase 
of rural life. Bible classes have been conducted for the 
men of the village as early as five A.M. Frequently the 
middle-aged will assemble at dusk for their classes in 
reading and writing, for the School is carrying on a cam- 
paign against illiteracy. There are special days for the 
women and children. The Indian crew consists of three 



92 MOVING MILLIONS 

fine Christian leaders. "Serve and save the village" is 
their motto. 1 

The Katpadi Institute in the south includes a higher 
elementary school in which Christian boys, largely of 
village origin, combine the ordinary school course with 
all the outdoor activities of a farm. Such boys leave 
school with a new and wholesome attitude toward 
manual labor; they look upon it with respect because 
they and their teachers together have done such work 
under favorable and happy conditions; to them farm 
work is no longer the degrading bondage of a serf but 
a vocation requiring intelligence and producing satisfac- 
tion in the worker. 

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES 

But not even improvements in agriculture making 
two blades of wheat or rice grow where one grew before 
will prevent seasonal unemployment and idleness, 
with resultant poverty. To overcome this there must be 
a revival of the cottage industries that flourished in 
India before the days of the industrial revolution and 
the world-wide relations of trade and commerce that 
resulted from it. It is for this purpose that Mr. Gandhi 
so passionately advocates the revival of cotton spinning 
in every village home. This which has been described as 
the "most talked- about cottage vocation" brings in a 

1 "The Supreme Interest of India," by John L. Goheen, in The Presby- 
terian Tribune, August 6, 1936. 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 93 

mere pittance a day, yet that very pittance may ward off 
starvation. Or, if the thread is not sold, it may be woven 
into cloth sufficient to clothe the family. In India, just as 
the automobile and the bullock cart run side by side 
along the same road, so the great cotton mills and the 
primitive looms work in close proximity; and in both 
cases collisions are less frequent than we might expect. 
The wearing of khaddar, that is, cloth woven from 
homespun thread, has been one of the planks of the In- 
dian National Congress. Good khaddar is a little more 
expensive than mill cloth, but it is worn as a patriotic 
symbol by thousands of Nationalists, and in spite of its 
coarseness has a dignity and beauty of its own. Khaddar 
sales have been large enough to make serious inroads 
upon the consumption of foreign cloth and to increase 
unemployment in Lancashire. 

In Christian circles there has been less emphasis upon 
spinning and more upon a diversified program of cot- 
tage industries. Dr. Spencer Hatch, who has organized 
an outstanding piece of rural reconstruction in the 
Indian state of Travancore, has found it possible to fur- 
ther such industries as hand-loom weaving, poultry rais- 
ing, bee-keeping, palm-sugar making, and the cultiva- 
tion of the cashew nut, all of them indigenous industries 
needing further development. 

COOPERATIVE MARKETING 

Dr. Hatch soon discovered that production is not 
enough; the marketing of the product is imperative. "I 



94 MOVING MILLIONS 

have seen rural people very puzzled and discouraged 
when they have learned to produce a better commodity, 
but have not found a market that would pay the higher 
price the better commodity was worth." 1 So from pro- 
duction this organization has gone on to cooperative 
marketing, organized entirely on the basis of self-help 
associations. These successful efforts are revolutionizing 
the rural life of this section of Travancore. 

In Katpadi a small building has been rented as a cen- 
ter for the marketing of improved eggs. There the vil- 
lager, Christian or non-Christian, may bring the product 
of his improved poultry yard. At the agricultural farm 
he has learned to construct simple but efficient poultry 
runs; to substitute good breeds of poultry for country 
stock; to feed and care for his birds in a scientific man- 
ner. This egg center enables him to ship eggs of a size 
that amaze the villager, and to receive an adequate price 
in return, with no exaction from the middleman. As the 
villager goes into the egg center it is with the honest 
pride of a good farmer that he sees his eggs weighed, 
dated and placed in rows with hundreds of others that 
are to be skillfully packed and shipped by rail to the 
great city a hundred miles away. 

AN INDIAN CHRISTIAN VILLAGE 
For a brighter side of the picture, I turn to the mem- 
ory of a South Indian Christian village, which I have 

1 D. Spencer Hatch, Up from Poverty in Rural India, p. 17. New York, 
Oxford University Press, 1936. 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 95 

known since my earliest years in India. This village was 
at that time seven miles from the nearest railway station; 
a few years ago a new station was opened not more than 
four miles distant. It is still seven miles from the nearest 
town and weekly market. It is not on the main road but 
can be approached only by negotiating a mile or two of 
cart track across waste lands and dry cultivation fields. 
Many years ago the majority of the outcaste section of 
this .large village became Christian. These outcastes 
were neither Sweepers nor Chamars, but Pariahs. This 
term, which has been adopted into English as a synonym 
for a social outcaste whether canine or human, really de- 
notes an Untouchable Tamil caste one or two steps 
above those of which we have been speaking. This vil- 
lage group was large enough to "come over" without 
much social dislocation, and proved particularly respon- 
sive to Christian teaching and educational opportunity. 
A little church and a tiny school were built early in its 
history. The former has been replaced by a commodious 
building suited to the growing congregation; for its 
erection money was collected and saved over a long 
period of years. The school also grew from a one- 
teacher to a three-teacher school. Boys and girls went 
away to boarding school, to high school, to college and 
theological seminary. A large number of catechists, 
pastors, and teachers have been drawn from this village 
of Yehamur. Undoubtedly this has been bad for the vil- 
lage for its best blood has been drawn away. The miti- 



96 MOVING MILLIONS 

gating circumstance is the fact that in this case there 
has been no dislocation. Children who earn have sent 
back money to parents, for the purchase of land and the 
building of better houses. For holidays and funerals, 
for weddings and festivals, children and grandchildren 
come home; their roots are still in the village and their 
pride is in it too. I think of a Christian catechist of 
small education who went out from Yehamur. Out of 
his large family of children several sons are college 
graduates, two are pastors, and one a teacher in a 
normal training school. One daughter has successfully 
completed her medical course and is now an interne in 
the hospital of the Vellore Medical College. The father 
has retired, and his sons have built him a comfortable 
house in the village, neat, sanitary and attractive. The 
aged father and mother make this their home and it is 
the center to which the educated sons and daughters re- 
turn for holidays and all special occasions. 

UPLIFT OF RURAL WOMEN 

A further need, and an urgent one, is the uplift of 
village women. The disabilities of rural women are in 
some way similar to those of their town-bred sisters, in 
other ways quite different. The system of purdah, or the 
seclusion of women, varies widely in the various areas 
of the Indian subcontinent. In general, there is less of it 
in villages than in towns and cities. 

But though most village women escape the curse of 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 97 

seclusion they suffer from many other disabilities long 
hours of unrelieved toil at the grinding of grain, the 
making of cow-dung cakes for fuel, the carrying of the 
heavy waterpot, the cooking of food over a smoky 
and chimneyless fire through months of grilling heat, 
as well as long hours of back-breaking toil in rice field 
or during the wheat harvest. Joined with this are the 
evils of early marriage, too frequent bearing of chil- 
dren, high death rate due to undernourishment, com- 
plete ignorance of sanitation, and lack of medical aid. 
Utter ignorance and a heavy load of superstition com- 
plete the picture. 

Until the women of the village are freed from these 
burdens, there is no hope for uplifting the rural com- 
munity. Mr. F. L. Brayne, the chief Government expo- 
nent of rural reconstruction in the Punjab, has said, 
"Educate a boy and you uplift an individual; educate a 
girl and you uplift a whole family." It is only as men 
and women advance equally, that family and commu- 
nity life can change. Any program that forgets the 
women of a village is too short-sighted to survive. 

THE NEED OF CHRISTIAN FAITH 

The last great need of the village is for a new type of 
religious faith, without which the motive power for re- 
form will be lacking. Yet such faith must be imparted, 
not in a social vacuum, but with and through such tangi- 
ble help as quinine, latrines, marketing facilities, pri- 



98 MOVING MILLIONS 

mary schools, cooperatives, ventilation, village news- 
papers, better seed, wells. 

A new religious faith is needed for the removal of 
superstition and its attendant fears. Anyone who knows 
even a little of the psychology of the villager will find 
new meaning in the biblical statement that "fear hath 
torment" and that only "perfect love casteth out fear." 
There has been little conscious effort on the part of ex- 
ponents of the higher forms of Hinduism to impart its 
more spiritual teachings to the uneducated. Hence the 
village pantheon is formed of the ancient animistic gods 
that have arisen out of a nature worship of vast antiq- 
uity. These, unlike the bright gods of Greece, usually 
symbolize the dark and fearful powers of nature, and 
naturally so, for a tropical and sub-tropical country sub- 
ject to burning heat, to alternations of flood and famine, 
to poverty and pestilence, shows to its poorer children 
little of the kindlier forms of nature. And so rites of 
propitiation are paid to the deadly but sacred cobra, to 
goddesses of cholera and smallpox, to demons that 
dwell in the neem tree with its fragrant blossoms and 
bitter medicinal leaves, to ghosts that haunt the deep 
well of the suicide and the burning ghat. Under a tree 
one finds two or three rough stones smeared with ver- 
million paint and sacred ghi, a little garland of jasmine 
and oleander, a broken cocoanut, sometimes the blood 
of a cock. When the scourge of cholera walks abroad 
in the land, then nightly processions go forth with beat 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 99 

of tom-tom and shout of fear to lead or drive the spirit 
of pestilence outside the limits of the village. 

As it was in the Europe of the Dark and even the 
Middle Ages, so here it needs more than two or three 
generations of Christian teaching to dispel these ancient 
fears through faith in the protecting care of an all- 
powerful and loving God. I have found it quite useless 
to attempt to prove that there is no devil pouncing from 
the da'rk branches of the neem tree; no spirit lying in 
wait beside the unused well; it is far more effective to 
urge that God is stronger than the devil, and that 

"From ghosties and ghoulies 
And ill-favored beasties, 
And things that go bump 
in the night" 

the good Lord can deliver us. 

STRIKING RESULTS IN LEADERSHIP 
Already leaders of force and ability have emerged 
from the rural life of India, among non-Christians as 
well as Christians. Many of the former have come from 
the higher castes, as for example the two Patel brothers 
and other well known names in Congress circles. Here 
and there, too, throughout the centuries, men of influ- 
ence have arisen out of the depressed classes themselves. 
In Travancore one such, Sri Narayana Guru, has re- 
cently been the acknowledged spiritual leader of one of 
the greatest depressed communities of that state. 



100 MOVING MILLIONS 

A few years ago in South India I had the privilege of 
seeing an outstanding piece of village uplift work, 
which was carried on without any money contribution 
from outside the village itself. Roads had been repaired, 
pits filled up, waste land reclaimed, latrines built, 
houses put in order, until the village was a changed 
place to live in. All this had been done by local unpaid 
labor, each household being assessed for one day's work 
each month by each man in the family. The men of the 
village met in assembly on the night of each new-moon- 
day, and planned the project which they would take up 
for the coming month. All this was due to the voluntary 
leadership of an educated member of the village, a land- 
lord who had caught the vision of a better life for his co- 
landowners and tenants, both caste and outcaste. The 
rise of such local unpaid leadership in every village 
would spell the social salvation of rural India. 

From among village Christians of depressed class 
origin, leadership of another type has emerged. Among 
the outcastes there is always a proportion of children 
who prove capable of receiving higher education and of 
profiting by it. Intelligence testing has not yet been Suf- 
ficiently perfected in India to prove just what that pro- 
portion is; we only know that it exists. In my own ex- 
perience I have known the children of illiterate parents 
in outcaste villages who in the first generation of educa- 
tion have completed a high school course through the 
medium of English a completely foreign language 



INDIA'S RURAL MILLIONS 101 

never spoken or heard in the village environment. I have 
known girls of similar origin whose parents had re- 
ceived an elementary education, who have gone straight 
through a medical school or arts college. They have 
come out to fulfill successfully the duties of a doctor, a 
head mistress, a school inspectress, or a Student Chris- 
tian Movement secretary, holding positions of influence 
among those of higher birth and better economic op- 
portunity than themselves. Some of our finest Christian 
pastors, possessed of both mental ability and spiritual 
power, have risen from the same lowly origin. Vast 
reservoirs of potential power for the renewal of India's 
life can be released from these underprivileged masses. 
Every Christian school that ministers to humble village 
folk is helping to unlock that reservoir. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MINISTRY OF HEALING 
IN INDIA 

By B. CHONE OLIVER, M.D. and L. B. CARRUTHERS, M.D. 

THE SCUDDER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 

IN the afternoon of a warm day in August, 1935, a 
small group of the Scudder family was gathered to- 
gether around a newly made grave in front of the 
lovely white Scudder Memorial Hospital in Ranipet, 
South India. Silently, reverently they stood in the little 
triangular plot of grass and ferns that enclosed the flag- 
draped tombstone of their ancestors, Dr. and Mrs. 
John Scudder, the first medical missionaries to come to 
India from America. For nearly a hundred years their 
bodies had lain in an obscure part of the Christian ceme- 
tery in Madras. Their great-grandson and namesake had 
gone to Madras, received permission to have the bodies 
disinterred, and had brought the sacred handful of 
dust and laid it in the new grave in front of the hos- 
pital which had been erected as a memorial to Dr. 
Scudder one hundred years after his arrival in India. Dr. 
Ida Scudder, founder of Vellore Hospital and Medical 
School, the only grandchild in India at the time, stepped 
forward and slowly drew aside the flag, unveiling a 

102 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 103 

large white marble slab. Deeply moved, everyone bent 
forward to read the inscription: 

JOHN SCUDDER INDIA, 1819-1855 
HARRIET WATERBURY SCUDDER INDIA, 1819-1849 

In 1819 the germ theory of disease had not yet been 
formulated. Anaesthesia for operating was unknown. 
There was no protection whatever from cholera, malaria, 
typhoid or smallpox. And yet this young couple had the 
divine courage to come to India where they lived and 
preached and healed the sick for nineteen years before 
they took their first furlough. Mrs. Scudder raised a 
family which for four generations has contributed more 
missionaries to India than any other in the world. By the 
eloquence of his preaching and even more by the beauty 
and unselfishness of his life, Dr. Scudder won large 
numbers of Indian people to Christ. He successfully per- 
formed major surgical operations in his own home un- 
der conditions that would be regarded as impossible 
today. He walked unharmed among the stricken people 
during cholera and smallpox epidemics, administering 
to them the best available remedies of the time. Incredi- 
ble as this seems, yet even more incredible is the result 
of his thirty-six years in India. The large, modern 
Scudder Memorial Hospital in Ranipet is one of over 
two hundred and fifty-six mission hospitals now scat- 
tered throughout the whole of India. And today three 
hundred and fifty doctors and three hundred nurses are 
carrying on the medical missionary work he began only 
a little over a hundred years ago. 



104 MOVING MILLIONS 

EARLY WOMEN DOCTORS 

The first woman doctor sent to India was Dr. Clara 
Swain, who reached Bareilly in 1870, not long after the 
first women physicians began to practice in America. 
Miss Elizabeth Bielby soon followed and opened the 
medical work at Lucknow. In 1881, on the morning of 
her departure to England, Miss Bielby was visited by the 
Maharani of Punna, a former patient. "You are going to 
England," said the royal lady. "I want you to tell the 
Queen what the women of India suffer when they are 
sick." She then gave charge that Miss Bielby herself was 
to convey the message to the Queen. She asked her to 
write it down. "Write small, Doctor Miss Sahib," she 
said, "for I want you to put it into a locket and you are 
to wear this locket around your neck till you see our 
great Queen and give it to her yourself. You are not to 
send it through another." Miss Bielby duly reached 
England, when the Queen, hearing of the message, sent 
for her and graciously admitted her to a personal inter- 
view. To what Miss Bielby said of the condition of suf- 
fering Indian women, Her Majesty listened with much 
interest, asking many questions, and showing the deep- 
est sympathy. The locket with its writing was given 
the Queen, and Her Majesty entrusted Miss Bielby with 
a kind and suitable reply. 1 

This interview was one of the causes of the formation 



1 Tbe Work of Medical Women in India, by Margaret Balfour and 
Ruth Young. New York, Oxford University Press, 1929. 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 105 

of the Countess of Dufferin Fund to render medical aid 
by women to the women of India. Fifty years ago there 
were only twenty-four women doctors practicing in In- 
dia, whereas today there are twenty-six in the Zenana 
Hospitals of Delhi alone. The government maintains 
the Women's Medical Service and the close bonds that 
exist between this service and women medical mission- 
aries is evidenced by the fact that, up to the present, 
most of the chief medical officers of that service and its 
college principals have been appointed from among 
women medical missionaries. 

MEDICAL COMPETITION: AMERICA OR INDIA? 

"True, I think we are filling a real need here, but fully 
half my time is taken up convincing the others of the 
existence of this need." Such was the remark uttered by 
the medical head of the department of student health in 
a large American university recently. Advertise so as to 
convince people of their need for the thing you have to 
sell, is the watchword of American business. Write ar- 
ticles, be appointed to the staffs of the better hospitals, 
do research so that your name may be connected with 
some new discovery or some new method of treatment; 
these are the ways of "selling oneself" in the medical 
profession. All this raises a fundamental question. The 
needs are real, no doubt, but is not the strain of competi- 
tion forcing exaggerations of them ? 

"Oh, what is the use? There won't be anybody there," 



106 MOVING MILLIONS 

replied one young New York doctor when asked why 
he was not in his office at the time that he had announced 
as his office hours. In America there is approximately 
one doctor for every 800 people. In India today there 
are 30,000 physicians among more than 350,000,000 
people, one doctor for every 12,000. This varies from 
one to every 800 people in Madras city to one to every 
35,000 in the Central Provinces. Fully half of these doc- 
tors are poorly trained and would not be allowed to 
practice under American laws. The problem in India is 
not rinding enough patients to keep one busy, it is rather 
rinding enough time to attend adequately to those 
who come desperately sick. There is no need to spend 
time in competition with fellow physicians and no need 
to spend time convincing people of the necessity for 
health. One million lepers; ten million pulled down 
physically each day by malaria; one hundred thousand 
untreated cases of tuberculosis walking the streets of 
Bombay; hookworm sapping the strength of an other- 
wise vigorous race; vitamin deficiencies and manifold 
forms of malnutrition; these are the needs that occupy 
the medical men of India every moment of their days. 
The task is far too great for the present medical profes- 
sion in India to cope with. In Allahabad, a city of 
183,914 inhabitants, it is estimated that 80% of the ill- 
nesses of the people are still being treated by indige- 
nous hakims and waids (medicine men) who ply their 
family trade in the villages, small towns and back streets 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 107 

of the cities, a trade that is based on fear, ignorance 
and superstition. Of necessity this must remain true as 
long as scientific medical help remains so inadequate. 

GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES 

There is much alms-giving in India, but there is no 
feeling of responsibility for the sufferings of the nation 
as a whole by the great majority of Indians. There are a 
few public-spirited men among the wealthy, particularly 
from among the Parsee community, who, contrary to 
the usual custom of the land, give generously to such 
official or semi-official organizations as the Red Cross 
Society, the King George Fund for Tuberculosis, and 
the British Empire Leprosy Relief Association. These 
organizations are active in their respective fields as far 
as their rather limited funds will permit. But there are no 
large hospitals supported by public subscription, no 
giving by medical practitioners of their time to free clinics 
and dispensaries without remuneration, no support for 
public health drives, no Community Chests. These last 
are distinctly Christian institutions and as such are for- 
eign to India, where exist the doctrines of karma or pun- 
ishment by God for sins committed, and the doctrine of 
kismet or fate. A young Indian prince was asked once by 
his English tutor what he would do for his poverty- 
stricken subjects when he ascended his throne. He re- 
plied, "I am what I am because of my good deeds in some 
previous incarnation; they are what they are because they 



108 MOVING MILLIONS 

were evil. It is their just punishment. For me to help ther 
would be to go against the will of God." 

Government agencies are doing their share of such a 
tempts as are being made to relieve the disease, the ma 
nutrition and the insanitary conditions of this land. I 
all the cities and many of the larger towns are goverr 
ment hospitals or dispensaries, the larger of which ai 
usually well-equipped. They are staffed by members c 
the Indian Medical Service which, in the past, has born 
a well-deserved reputation for its high professional stam 
ards. Its services do not extend into the smaller towns an 
villages, however, and of these there are about eight hui 
dred thousand. The private practitioners crowd into tt 
cities because here the financial return is larger and tt 
villages go neglected. 

The average Indian patient is interested only in tt 
treatment of his disease. He does not understand abo\ 
the need for accurate diagnosis first. As a consequem 
he will object usually to paying consultation fees or fei 
for X-rays or laboratory work. If he can pay at all, he wi 
pay for medicine or for surgical operations. It is a gre; 
temptation then for the private practitioner to neglect a 
attempts at accurate diagnosis and to put his stress on tl 
bottle of medicine which he dispenses himself or upc 
the need for surgery. The standards he sets for his pra 
tice fall accordingly. One wonders sometimes if the L 
dian villager really appreciates the difference betwet 
the charm the village "quack" hands out and the bott 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 109 

of medicine he so trustingly clutches to his breast. The 
long row of empty patent medicine bottles that is in- 
variably seen by the Mission doctor -when he attends upon 
a chronic invalid is one of the many pathetic examples of 
economic waste in this great land. 

WIDE-SPREAD MEDICAL MISSIONS 

Medical missions in India are spread out over the 
whole country, from the valleys of the Himalayas in the 
north to the green fields of Ceylon in the south, from the 
deserts of Baluchistan in the west to the jungles of Assam 
and. Burma in the east. Along the north-western frontier, 
at the foot of the passes through the mountains, is a chain 
of dispensaries that are friendly outposts in this un- 
friendly area. They render aid to those who every year 
trek back and forth through these passes between India, 
Afghanistan and Tibet. In these hospitals on the frontier, 
one is likely to find, besides the ordinary private and pub- 
lic wards, a caravansary ward like an Eastern inn, where 
friends and relatives can stay with the patient. Lord Rob- 
erts said of the late Dr. Theodore Pennell that he was 
worth two regiments of soldiers in keeping the peace 
along that turbulent border. At Quetta Sir Henry Hol- 
land has built up a hospital and a reputation that brings 
ophthalmologists from both England and America to 
study under him. Dr. Douglas Forman's dispensary work 
at Allahabad is a model of its kind. In Bihar, among the 
primitive Santals, where Dr. Ronald Macphail, in sue- 



110 MOVING MILLIONS 

cession to his father, carries on an extensive eye clinic, 
during the "cataract season" patients can be seen camped 
out in the open with their clothes and cooking pots hang- 
ing from the trees. 

Dr. T. Howard Somervell, who first came to India as 
a member of the famous Mount Everest expedition on 
which Mallory and Irvine lost their lives, works in the 
extreme south of India. Impressed by the needs he saw 
while on this expedition, he surrendered a brilliant fu- 
ture in London to take charge of the large mission hos- 
pital in Neyyoor. This hospital is noted for its develop- 
ment of small, out-lying hospitals, some of which are 
over one hundred miles from the large central one. In 
this way the institution is able to serve an enormous 
community and to treat over 150,000 patients yearly. At 
Miraj, in western India, through the efforts of Sir Wil- 
liam Wanless and Dr. Charles Vail, there has been built 
up the largest of these medical missionary hospitals of 
India, an institution that includes a large general hos- 
pital, a medical school and nursing school and both 
leper and tuberculosis sanatoria. These larger general 
mission hospitals are usually fairly well equipped and 
adequately staffed, although not sufficiently so as to per- 
mit the critical observation of patients which is routine 
in American hospitals of the same size. 

This, however, cannot be said of the smaller mission 
hospitals. What they lack along these lines, they attempt 
to make up by self-sacrificing care of their patients. In the 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 111 

capital city of one of the larger Indian states, there is one 
of these small, poorly equipped mission hospitals and a 
much larger, beautifully equipped and well staffed gov- 
ernment hospital. The former is nearly 100% full every 
day, the latter rarely more than 20% so. Asked why this 
was, a leading Brahman citizen of that city replied, "Be- 
cause people know that in the mission hospital they will 
be cared for and seen every day, whereas in the govern- 
ment hospital they may lie four or five days at a time 
without once being visited by a doctor." 

ZENANA HOSPITALS 

Half the mission hospitals of India are staffed by 
women doctors. Because of the religious and social cus- 
toms of both Islam and Hinduism, these "zenana hos- 
pitals," as they are popularly called, are restricted to 
the treatment of women and children. This is particu- 
larly so in the north of India. One of the finest examples 
of this type of hospital is to be found at Lucknow, where 
the Zenana Bible Mission Hospital has for years given 
practically the only medical aid open to the purdah- 
bound Moslem women of that city. Though always 
crowded to over-flowing, a man can walk through the 
wards of this hospital and never see a patient, as each 
bed is carefully screened off by heavy curtains. In Bom- 
bay Presidency, however, the purdah system is only 
uncommonly found and here women patients will come 
quite freely to male doctors and, conversely, a large 



112 MOVING MILLIONS 

proportion of the patients in the zenana hospitals, such 
as the one at Kolhapur, are men. 

In one year about 32,000 maternity cases are treated 
in the mission hospitals of India. Of these, about one 
third are abnormal. Because of the superstition and re- 
ligious customs that surround child-bearing, it is dif- 
ficult in many parts of India to get expectant mothers to 
come to the hospitals. This feeling is breaking down, 
however, and already in the city of Bombay it is esti- 
mated that 80% of births occur in the hospitals and 
maternity homes. In the villages and small towns, how- 
ever, there is still the local dai or midwife for attend- 
ance on women at childbirth. As childbirth is a time of 
impurity, the dot is always uneducated and of low caste 
and she has no training for her task beyond that of her 
own experience. Since the bed and bedding are fre- 
quently burned after the birth or given to the dai, only 
the oldest things are used, and the worst room in the 
home is the lying-in chamber. These women have no idea 
of the mechanism of birth or of asepsis. In any difficulty 
their only remedy is force, often applied with disastrous 
consequences. 

Women who have always lived in purdah are often 
great sufferers at childbirth because of their lack of sun- 
shine, fresh air and exercise. They are prone to anemia, 
to tuberculosis, or to adult rickets, and this last causes 
such deformities that the child can often only be born 
by Caesarian section. It is estimated that 200,000 women 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 113 

die yearly in India at childbirth from preventable causes. 
In attempts to meet this situation, many of the mission 
hospitals conduct classes for training these village dais 
and a great many of the Indian Christian nurses are tak- 
ing up midwifery. 

EVANGELISTIC WORK IN HOSPITALS 
In all these hospitals, side by side with the treatment 
of the patients, side by side with the training of the 
student nurses and patients themselves, goes on the 
evangelistic work. Sometimes the doctors and nurses do 
it directly in the morning prayers or the clinic or ward 
services, sometimes they carry it on only indirectly 
through the lives they are living. In most hospitals there 
are also official hospital evangelists who are usually In- 
dian and who sometimes are highly qualified. Usually 
there is some one in each hospital who makes it his job 
to distribute magazines and other reading material to the 
bed-ridden patients. The number of those who desire to 
take the opportunity during their illness to read the 
New Testament is truly remarkable. The interest of the 
average Indian in things of the spirit has no parallel in 
any other country. 

In one hospital a nursing sister, who also is the evan- 
gelist, tells of a woman who was in a terrible condition, 
physically, mentally and morally, living in filthiness and 
subject to wild outbursts of temper. This woman fol- 
lowed the nursing sister into the chapel one morning 



114 MOVING MILLIONS 

and there asked to be allowed to help with the dusting. 
After that she came regularly each day, seeming to find 
relief in the peaceful atmosphere of the chapel. One day 
when they were there together, the woman pointed to 
the black marble cross embedded in the floor and asked 
what it was. Being told of its meaning she grasped the 
idea that the chapel was hers and the cross was there for 
her. Her life began to be different. She took over the work 
of keeping the chapel clean. She would bathe each day 
before coming to scrub the floor. When it was suggested 
that her work should be changed she was afraid and 
pleaded to be allowed to continue. "You see, sister, 
Jesus saves me here. I come and look at this cross and I 
know that I am safe. I never want to leave this work." 

HIGHER HEALTH STANDARDS 

In the Christian community, where mission medical 
work can be carried on more effectively, there is most 
clearly evidenced the result of the impact of better stand- 
ards of health, cleanliness and medical care upon the 
people. There caste customs or local superstition are not 
hampering factors. Epidemics do not mean angry gods 
that must be appeased, nor does adding chlorine to the 
water supply simply mean defiling it. The houses of the 
pastor or teacher in the Christian school are usually mod- 
els of cleanliness for those living around. Health meas- 
ures are taught in both the day and Sunday schools. Chris- 
tian mothers have learned to bring their children to the 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 115 

doctors when they first become sick rather than attempt- 
ing to treat them at home with patent medicines, and 
annual physical examinations are routine to many of 
them. All this has resulted in the infant mortality rate 
being lower and the life-expectancy rate being longer 
among the Christians than among the rest of the popula- 
tion of India. The Indian Christian, despite his origin, 
in the great majority of instances, from the lowest strata 
of Hindu society, is classified in the Indian Government 
Census as from the "advanced" communities. 

Often the hospital has brought the local Christian 
church and community into being. There was not a sin- 
gle Christian in Miraj when the late Sir William Wan- 
less first went there in 1889. Today there is a strong, 
vigorous church of six hundred members. In the central 
part of India, in a small town, where twenty-five years 
ago one of the earliest graduates of the Miraj Medical 
School went to work, today, largely as a result of his 
effort and example, there is a small church and a Chris- 
tian community of three hundred. 

THE LEPERS OF INDIA 

The leper in India is the "cursed of God." The 
number of these unfortunate people who walk the 
streets of the cities, begging for alms, uttering their 
plaintive cries of "Sahib, Sahib, baksheesh Sahib," is 
one of the disgraces of this great land. The attitude of 
Hindu society that they are social pariahs, the fact that 



116 MOVING MILLIONS 

their disease is scattered through large parts of India 
and penetrates into the remotest villages, and insufficient 
finances for the government to tackle so large a prob- 
lem these are the reasons for the general neglect of 
this problem by the official agencies. The British Em- 
pire Relief Association has done considerable in giv- 
ing grants to various hospitals and dispensaries to 
finance the treatment of lepers in their clinics. Not 
so many years ago this was considered to be the true 
solution to the problem, but many question its efficacy 
now. New understanding of the ways in which the 
disease spreads and a fuller realization of the rela- 
tive ineffectiveness of chaulmoogra oil of which so 
much was expected, has led to this change in attitude. 
It is now believed that only in the leper sanatoria can 
cures be effected. From these sanatoria patients are 
being discharged as cured or at least arrested. Such can- 
not be said for the treatment given to these people as 
patients in the various out-patient clinics. In the sana- 
torium, the leper receives rest, good food and fresh air 
and all his surroundings are improved hygienically. It 
would seem that these are as fundamental in the treat- 
ment of leprosy as they are in tuberculosis. Here also, as 
he improves, he is permitted to do some work and so to 
help support himself and his family. At the same time he 
is kept from infecting others, particularly the chil- 
dren who are so susceptible to this disease. 
As he comes down from one of the hill stations near 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 117 

Bombay, the traveler by bus makes his first stop in a little 
town that nestles in the valley below. As the bus slows 
down in the market-place, from the surrounding build- 
ings and the near-by alleys come lepers to beg from the 
passengers, hobbling along on their crippled feet, hold- 
ing out their deformed hands. Some of the lepers are 
young boys and girls, some are mothers with little chil- 
dren clinging to their skirts and oblivious to the fact that 
most certainly they are passing on their dread disease to 
these little ones. From time to time they are advised by 
some responsible person where they can receive treatment 
but they never heed, ignorant of or ignoring the fact that 
they are a menace to those around, intent only on the 
few pennies their condition can induce the travelers to 
give. 

Not so many miles from that little town is one of the 
Homes of the Mission to Lepers. Its neat, white-washed 
buildings, grouped around the central chapel, are sur- 
rounded by flower gardens and shaded by great banyan 
trees. Here in little rooms, each with its own house-keep- 
ing facilities, live the leper in-patients receiving their 
treatments regularly. Each day their wounds are properly 
dressed. Each day they receive the good food that they re- 
quire. Each day they spend working in the near-by fields, 
keeping the grounds neat, caring for the gardens or tak- 
ing part in the many educational activities of the Home. 
They have their own self-government organization. They 
have their little evangelistic band also that goes out into 



118 MOVING MILLIONS 

the bazaars of the surrounding villages to sing and to tell 
the story of Christ. A year or so ago, the Governor of 
Bombay visited the town where that leper home is lo- 
cated and of all the many things he saw, what impressed 
him most was the play that the lepers wrote, staged and 
acted in his honour. 

In 1930, two hundred and forty-two lepers were dis- 
charged as symptom-free from the homes of the Mis- 
sion to Lepers. In 1935 this number rose to nine hun- 
dred and twenty. At Chingleput, south of Madras, is the 
largest of these leper sanatoria under the care of Dr. 
Cochrane, who has given his life to the study of this 
one disease. In the Central Provinces, the Mission to 
Lepers has recently developed a farm colony of six 
thousand acres upon which discharged patients will be 
settled. No greater joy can be witnessed anywhere than 
that which comes to these people who, saved from so- 
cial ostracism and from condemnation to a slowly ad- 
vancing death, are thus enabled to return, symptom- 
free, to normal living conditions. The example of Christ 
is surely being followed in the treatment of leprosy, but 
the number of lepers in India is great and the sanatoria 
are few. 

TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS 
There are nine mission hospitals in India devoted ex- 
clusively to the treatment of tuberculosis. This disease, 
due to poor nutrition of the Indian people and to the 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 119 

crowded, unsanitary conditions under which they live, 
is very prevalent. Yet in the whole of India there are 
only four thousand beds available in the different hos- 
pitals for its treatment, fewer than are found in some sin- 
gle American cities. Many of these beds are in the nine 
mission tuberculosis hospitals. The largest tuberculosis 
sanatorium in India is the Union Mission Tuberculosis 
Sanatorium at Arogyavaram in South India. Here there 
are two hundred and thirty-three beds under the care of 
Dr. C. Frimodt-Mbller and his Indian associates. Not 
only is good modern treatment carried out at Arogya- 
varam but also government and mission doctors receive 
post-graduate training. The second largest sanatorium 
is another union mission project, the Wanless Union Tu- 
berculosis Sanatorium at Miraj. A third large mission san- 
atorium is being built up with partial government aid, at 
Pendra Road in the Central Provinces. The long nursing 
care required for tuberculosis patients and the dread 
which so many people have of coming into contact with 
the disease, make ministry to them a task peculiarly ap- 
propriate for the Christian doctor and nurse. One of the 
leading experts on tuberculosis in India today is an In- 
dian Christian doctor at Arogyavaram. 

MEDICAL PIONEERING 

The days of physical pioneering have practically 
gone. There are areas up in the mountains of Bombay 
Province where there are no roads, only foot paths lead- 



120 MOVING MILLIONS 

ing through the dense jungle, and where wounds 
inflicted by wild animals are some of the commonest 
reasons for consulting the medical man. Most of India 
is accessible by railway or by gravel road today and the 
need for opening new country with all its attendant 
hardships is now almost gone. But there are other great 
fields open to the pioneering medical missionary. A 
member of one of the large American mission boards 
said that he believes every mission institution should 
be reaching out for better and easier ways of doing its 
work, new ways of educating its students, new ways of 
teaching health, new ways of bringing modern medicine 
to the villager. Many examples of this sort of pioneering 
are be found. The attempts of some missionary nurses to 
develop in the villages a modified form of public health 
nursing is one example, and another is the work of the 
roadside clinics developed by Dr. Ida Scudder at Vel- 
lore, where motors fitted up as traveling dispensaries 
are sent out daily along advertised routes. 

PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS 

It is, however, in the field of preventive medicine and 
sanitation that the great opportunity of the future lies. 
The dean of a large mid-western medical college, while 
on a visit to India, remarked one day that he had never 
seen a case of guinea worm, a parasitic disease con- 
tracted by drinking infected water. He was taken to a 
small isolated village some miles away and there in an 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 121 

afternoon he saw over one hundred cases of the disease 
in all its stages. Two-thirds of the people of that village 
were infected, but there was not a single case in its large 
Christian community. Some months previously a mis- 
sionary had come to the village and had persuaded the 
Christian people to cover up their well and to use a 
pump to obtain the water. In this way infected persons 
were prevented from wading into the water of that 
well and so spreading the disease. In the next few 
months the disease died out completely from among the 
Christians of that village, and in a short while others 
were asking how they too could rid themselves of the 
parasite. Such a simple demonstration is worth months 
of propaganda. 

Simple public health campaigns such as this are be- 
ing conducted all over India, very often by the non- 
medical missionary. Despite the great opportunities that 
lie in this field, there is not a single medical missionary 
in India today who devotes anything but a small pro- 
portion of his time to public health. It is one of the great 
opportunities of the future and one that offers many 
ways of pioneering in conjunction with the newer de- 
velopments of village uplift work. A mere repetition 
of the work that government institutions are doing and 
doing satisfactorily is not enough ; in everything under- 
taken the mission must blaze new trails. 



122 MOVING MILLIONS 

THE NURSING PROFESSION 

In India the nursing profession is 90 % Christian. 
This has been due largely to the confining restric- 
tions with which Islam surrounds its women and to 
the barriers of caste among the Hindus. However there 
are signs that a few of the more progressive young 
Moslem and Hindu women are beginning to think 
seriously of following their Christian sisters into this 
great profession. The government hospitals of India 
have trained many nurses but these have been mostly 
from the Anglo-Indian community. Most of the native 
Indian nurses receive their training in mission institu- 
tions and many of them have remained in mission work 
after their graduation. The standards of nursing in 
India are rapidly rising. Governmental regulation is 
setting these standards at higher and higher levels, be- 
ing influenced largely by an increasing national pride 
and a desire for reciprocity agreements with other coun- 
tries, notably Great Britain. In many nursing schools, 
high school graduation is already being required for 
admission. The mission schools must be prepared not 
only to meet these rising standards, but also to continue 
to blaze new trails in nursing education if they are to 
keep the leadership they have held so long. These ris- 
ing standards still manifest themselves mostly in the 
cities and towns. In many places, particularly in the 
native Indian states, the nursing service in the govern- 
ment hospitals leaves much to be desired or is con- 
spicuous by its absence. 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 123 

Not long ago the secretary of the Christian Medical 
Association visited a mission hospital of seventy beds 
in a large native state. It was rather poorly housed in 
an old bungalow with some outside wards, but its beds 
were full, and there was a nurses' training school un- 
der a missionary nurse. Across the road was a fine state 
hospital with two well qualified doctors, a man and a 
woman, but few patients, and the only nurse on the 
women's wards was an ayah, a practical nurse with no 
special training whatever. 

THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE MEDICAL TRAINING 

In the field of the training of physicians and surgeons, 
the initiative in the past has rested with the govern- 
mental medical colleges and schools. Nearly all the 
eleven Indian provinces have medical colleges in con- 
nection with their universities and two or more of the 
lower grade medical schools. Spurred on by the same 
influences that are at work in the nursing profession, 
standards in medical education are rising also and 
within the next few years the differences now existing 
between the medical college and the medical school will 
be abolished. Already new standards set in Bombay for 
medical schools require two years of pre-medical study 
in a liberal arts college and four years in medicine, only 
one year less than in the medical colleges. In Madras the 
lower grade schools are being abolished altogether. The 
situation is quite analogous with that facing the nursing 
schools. If anything, however, it is more acute. 



124 MOVING MILLIONS 

There is still need for great pioneers in the field of 
Christian medical education in India. At present there 
are only three mission medical schools in the whole 
country, all of them lower than college grade: Ludhiana 
and Vellore for women and Miraj for men. All of these 
schools are working under great financial handicaps. 

The mission medical schools in India have not been 
above criticism. Over-crowding of classes, inadequate 
equipment, poorly qualified teaching, staffs overworked 
with a multiplicity of duties which make impossible that 
degree of professional excellence which will serve as a 
stimulus to the students before and after graduation 
these are faults more or less true of all three schools. Their 
staffs, their governing bodies and the Christian Medical 
Association of India are all keenly aware of these faults. 
Vellore has already declared its intention of advancing 
to the higher grade, going forth in faith despite re- 
curring deficits. The school at Miraj is also exerting 
every effort to reach a similar standard, though here 
governmental pressure is not so strong as at Vellore, 
and a more gradual change may be possible. The Lud- 
hiana school receives government aid and there the 
situation is at present less acute. 

The medical missionary of the future must be more 
willing to hand over greater and greater responsibilities 
to his Indian associates. In the past it has been felt that 
the Indian assistant doctors were not sufficiently well 
trained to take heavy responsibility and that they have 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 125 

not been able to command the confidence of their fel- 
low countrymen. Both of these facts have been true. 
However the deficiencies in training, of which lack 
of confidence is a by-product, have not been the fault of 
the Indians but of the mission medical schools and of 
the medical missionaries with whom they have sub- 
sequently worked. 

Too often the medical missionary is kept so busy that 
he has no time to give to the training of his Indian as- 
sistants, thereby being forced to neglect one of the great- 
est opportunities he has of being of help to India and of 
inculcating the high ideals and standards of efficiency of 
Christian medicine. All medical missionaries have not 
yet learned to look upon their Indian professional asso- 
ciates and say, "He must increase but I must decrease." 

Those medical missionaries who have insisted on hav- 
ing time to train their Indian assistants have been re- 
warded by having men ready and fit to step in at a mo- 
ment's notice when emergencies occur. One such 
emergency arose recently in one of the larger mission 
hospitals of central India when the medical missionary 
had to return suddenly to America for reasons of health. 
His young Indian assistant, a graduate of one of the mis- 
sion medical schools, has carried on in his absence quite 
successfully and with the full confidence of the patients. 

In conversation with the medical head of one of the 
best known American tuberculosis sanatoria, the name 
of Dr. Frimodt-Mbller was mentioned. "Yes, I know 



126 MOVING MILLIONS 

him. He is the man who, out there in India, insists 
that all his medical assistants be well trained," was the 
only comment this superintendent made. A large mis- 
sion eye hospital near Madras has been for years in 
charge of a mission medical school graduate. In west- 
ern India, recently, a graduate of the same school 
went to the mission during the height of the financial de- 
pression and offered to assume full financial responsi- 
bility for the little branch hospital of which he was in 
charge. The offer was accepted and today, under a man- 
aging committee appointed from that little Christian 
church of only one hundred and twenty-five members, 
that hospital is flourishing. A maternity wing and a 
new assistant doctor have had to be added. The Chris- 
tian patients take pride in paying for. the services they 
receive in order that poor Hindus and Moslems, many 
of them better able to pay than they, can be treated 
free. This last is a sterling example of one of the de- 
velopments in medical missions to which we look for- 
ward. 

Not only must the medical missionary in the future 
devote more time to the training and professional de- 
velopment of his Indian assistants, but also both med- 
ical and nursing schools must be prepared. to give their 
students more adequate training in their undergraduate 
courses. In this education of Christian doctors and 
nurses a heavy responsibility is devolving upon the 
missions in India. 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 127 

INDIAN CHRISTIAN DOCTORS 

Despite the deficiencies of the mission schools, their 
graduates have made notable contributions to the cause 
of medicine in India. Hundreds of doctors have been 
trained for mission service. Some have gone into gov- 
ernment work and others into private practice. Of those 
who have entered private practice nearly all have gone 
into the smaller towns and villages where the need is 
greate'st. Just recently a graduate of one of these schools, 
who, after post-graduate study in America, built up a 
prosperous practice in one of the larger towns of India, 
entered the Indian church as a national missionary, tak- 
ing his own savings to build a hospital among the people 
of a desperately needy area. 

Another student from a high-caste Hindu family 
accepted Christ and was baptized after his graduation 
from medical school. He completed his interneship and 
then was offered the opportunity to open a dispensary 
in a little village. His salary was to be fifteen dollars 
monthly in such months as the financially impoverished 
mission could pay it. Much more tempting offers failed 
to move him from his purpose. 

Contrast with that the story of a Christian lad who 
graduated from the best of the government medical 
colleges and who wanted desperately to enter mission 
service. Because of a debt incurred for his education at 
the expensive government college, however, his family 
forced him to accept employment by an industrial firm at 
a higher salary than the mission could give him. 



128 MOVING MILLIONS 

Scattered through the towns and villages of India, 
in charge of dispensaries or smaller hospitals or acting 
as assistants in larger ones, here and there in charge of 
large hospitals, here and there in private practice, are 
found the graduates of our mission schools, practicing 
their profession in accordance with the highest Chris- 
tian ethics, being active in their churches and leaders 
in their communities. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDICAL MISSIONS 
Speaking of the rapid Indianization of government 
medical services, the surgeon-general of one of the 
premier provinces remarked that the responsibility of 
maintaining the high ideals and scientific methods of 
western medicine would have to be carried more and 
more by medical missions. This means that the medical 
missionary of the future must be of the best that west- 
ern medicine can produce. A higher and higher calibre 
and a better and still better training must be demanded 
of him before he goes to the field. Otherwise he can- 
not serve as a stimulus to his Indian colleagues. 

It also means that the medical and nursing schools 
of the missions must have an increasingly high standard. 
The Christian Medical Association of India, which em- 
braces all medical missionaries and most Indian Chris- 
tian doctors, has put itself on record as favoring the 
establishment of a medical college of the highest grade 
and a permanent committee is at work on this project. 



128 MOVING MILLIONS 

Scattered through the towns and villages of India, 
in charge of dispensaries or smaller hospitals or acting 
as assistants in larger ones, here and there in charge of 
large hospitals, here and there in private practice, are 
found the graduates of our mission schools, practicing 
their profession in accordance with the highest Chris- 
tian ethics, being active in their churches and leaders 
in their communities. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDICAL MISSIONS 
Speaking of the rapid Indianization of government 
medical services, the surgeon-general of one of the 
premier provinces remarked that the responsibility of 
maintaining the high ideals and scientific methods of 
western medicine would have to be carried more and 
more by medical missions. This means that the medical 
missionary of the future must be of the best that west? 
ern medicine can produce. A higher and higher calibre 
and a better and still better training must be demanded 
of him before he goes to the field. Otherwise he can- 
not serve as a stimulus to his Indian colleagues. 

It also means that the medical and nursing schools 
of the missions must have an increasingly high standard. 
The Christian Medical Association of India, which em- 
braces all medical missionaries and most Indian Chris- 
tian doctors, has put itself on record as favoring the 
establishment of a medical college of the highest grade 
and a permanent committee is at work on this project. 



THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 129 

The cost of such an institution, both to establish and 
to maintain, would of necessity be great. The need for 
it, however, can be readily realized when one remembers 
the increasing governmental standards for medical prac- 
tice, the lack of stress on adequate ethical standards in 
the governmental medical colleges, the relatively high 
cost of attending these colleges and the need for well 
trained Indian Christian doctors in mission hospitals 
and in private village practice. The highest government 
medical officials have expressed their desire to see 
such a mission college established and it remains as one 
of the great projects for the near future. The original 
plan of building such a college de novo because of the 
cost would at the present not seem feasible. Its more 
gradual development upon the basis of one of the al- 
ready-existing medical schools would seem more likely, 
and more desirable. Too much time, however, must not 
be allowed to pass. 

WIDE OPPORTUNITIES 

The associate surgeon in the best known mission eye 
hospital in India was once a poor outcaste boy. When 
he was playing in the streets of his native village, an ox- 
cart came clattering by and struck him and the huge 
wooden wheel of the overly laden cart passed over his 
ankle. He was carried to his home and his ignorant 
parents called in the local watd, but in a few days his 
leg was gangrenous. A Christian Bible woman came by 



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THE MINISTRY OF HEALING IN INDIA 129 

The cost of such an institution, both to establish and 
to maintain, would of necessity be great. The need for 
it, however, can be readily realized when one remembers 
the increasing governmental standards for medical prac- 
tice, the lack of stress on adequate ethical standards in 
the governmental medical colleges, the relatively high 
cost of attending these colleges and the need for well 
trained Indian Christian doctors in mission hospitals 
and in private village practice. The highest government 
medical officials have expressed their desire to see 
such a mission college established and it remains as one 
of the great projects for the near future. The original 
plan of building such a college de novo because of the 
cost would at the present not seem feasible. Its more 
gradual development upon the basis of one of the al- 
ready-existing medical schools would seem more likely, 
and more desirable. Too much time, however, must not 
be allowed to pass. 

WIDE OPPORTUNITIES 

The associate surgeon in the best known mission eye 
hospital in India was once a poor outcaste boy. When 
he was playing in the streets of his native village, an ox- 
cart came clattering by and struck him and the huge 
wooden wheel of the overly laden cart passed over his 
ankle. He was carried to his home and his ignorant 
parents called in the local waid, but in a few days his 
leg was gangrenous. A Christian Bible woman came by 



130 MOVING MILLIONS 

and induced the parents to send the boy to the mission 
hospital. He was so desperately ill that his leg had to be 
be amputated and he took months to regain his strength. 
When he was well again, his parents allowed him to 
attend the mission schools and there, in the course of 
time, he passed his high school graduation examinations 
and entered the medical school at Miraj. During his 
school career he accepted Christianity. Today he is one 
of the most influential and loved members of the staff 
of that hospital and of His community. 

This story is not unique nor is it even an unusual one. 
It is typical of one of the finest effects of medical mis- 
sions in India. Should a Christian medical college be 
developed, it would mean the giving of even greater in- 
fluence to such men in their community, opening for 
them wider opportunities for service in their towns or 
villages, or enabling them to accept key positions in the 
medical profession all over the country, thus showing 
to the whole of India those ethical standards and that 
love for the patient which Christ alone can give to those 
who practice the art of healing. 



CHAPTER V 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 
IN INDIA 

By C. HERBERT and MARY C. RICE 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS AND EDUCATIONAL PIONEERING 

TRY to picture for yourselves the educational posi- 
tion in India in the early years of the last century. 
Hindu learning was confined to the priestly Brah- 
man caste and was transmitted through the medium of 
an ancient sacred language, the Sanscrit, in temple 
schools. It concerned itself with the philosophy and lit- 
erature of the Brahmanical religion. Moslem learning 
was likewise confined to the study of Arabic and Persian 
classics, and while more democratic than the Hindu, it 
was also essentially concerned with abstract and theolog- 
ical subjects. Both systems largely ignored the education 
of women; neither had come under the influence of 
modern thought movements; in neither had the vernac- 
ular languages been given any importance as sources 
or media of education; and neither had employed the 
printing press as a means to extend knowledge amongst 
the people. The vast majority of the people were en- 
tirely illiterate. This does not mean that they were wholly 
ignorant or uncultured. There are elaborate structures 

/ 

131 



132 MOVING MILLIONS 

of common thought, tradition, and ceremony possible 
without a literary education. There are the cultural in- 
fluences of music, folk drama, folklore and the civilizing 
usages of highly developed language and social conven- 
tion. But if we think of education as a means of acquaint- 
ing all the people with the history of the past and with 
the facts and principles of life, and of furnishing them 
with new ideas and purposes for daily needs in a de- 
veloping world, India was at that time without any edu- 
cation and without any means of securing it. 

The early missionaries had therefore to begin from the 
ground up. There were government officials in Madras, 
Bengal and Bombay who were grappling with the prob- 
lem. Public-spirited Indians, such as Rajah Ram Mohan 
Roy of Bengal, also felt the need for western learning 
and founded schools for its propagation. But the great- 
est names in the history of modern education in India 
are undoubtedly those of William Carey and Alexander 
Duff, who were missionaries in Calcutta at the time of 
which we are writing. The Christian institutions, which 
they founded for the teaching of western learning 
through the medium of English, represented a far-reach- 
ing conviction on the part of their founders that the dis- 
semination of modern scientific ideas and the ideas at 
the base of western culture were a necessary prelude to 
the breaking up of the Hindu system and to the reception 
of Christian truth. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 133 

BEGINNINGS OF AN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 
Christian missions begin with preaching and healing. 
The necessity arises at once for breaking down ignorance 
and prejudice in the community. This is done by means 
of schools which create an atmosphere in which the ideas 
of Christianity may receive an intelligent reception. 
Christian children must know how to read, else the 
Bible itself is a closed book to them. The people at large 
must know how to read and must have the Bible and 
other Christian literature available in their own speech. 
And if the Christian church is to have a trained leader- 
ship, Christian high schools and colleges are naturally 
and inevitably the next step. 

The record of the founding of the Christian schools of 
India is an inspiring story of pioneer efforts to fight 
illiteracy and superstition; to introduce the dynamite 
of modern knowledge; to provide intellectual training 
for the children of illiterate Christian converts; to pro- 
vide the opportunity of Christian education and char- 
acter training for the children of liberally minded non- 
Christians; to provide training in trades and crafts for 
Christian boys; to study and attack the problems of 
poverty and disease; to prepare students for the high 
callings of the ministry, teaching and public service. 
Every one of our Christian schools goes back to some 
crying need and the response of some person who could 
see and feel it and was prepared to spend himself in 
meeting it. 



134 MOVING MILLIONS 

EDUCATIONAL PIONEERS 

Christian education has always been a pioneering en- 
terprise. The time was when Christian schools, being the 
first in the field, were responsible for a very considerable 
part of the educational work of the country. Even up to 
very recent years this has been true with respect to the 
education of girls. But as the government system has de- 
veloped, and private agencies have undertaken more 
and more to provide schools for their own children, the 
function of Christian schools has become more specific. 
They still have their fundamental importance in relation 
to the growing Christian church. They still have the op- 
portunity of demonstrating the value of scientific and 
progressive method. They still exert incalculable in-r 
fluence in the training of hundreds of sterling and able 
men for the public services; it is doubtful, for example, 
whether any government or private institution in India 
has left so great a mark upon the leading men of a great 
province as the Madras Christian College has done. They 
still find new fields in technical education, such as chem- 
ical engineering at Forman Christian College, Lahore, 
agricultural teaching and research at Allahabad, physical 
education at Madras and Lucknow, training for social 
welfare workers at Bombay, and the training of Chris- 
tian teachers at several centers. They have always been 
"schools with a message." Even where they have had to 
conform to rather rigid curricula and examinations 
within the government system, Christian educators have 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 135 

always had the opportunity to participate in the councils 
of the Department o Public Instruction; they have al- 
ways had opportunity to experiment and to demonstrate 
a better way; they have always been free to exemplify 
that difference, that peculiar quality, known as Christian. 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA TODAY 
Each of the eleven provinces of British India and many 
of the great Indian states have now a highly organized 
department of education. At the head of the department 
is a Director of Public Instruction, and under him there 
are various administrative and inspecting officers. 
Schools and colleges follow a curriculum of secular 
studies which is prescribed for the entire province, and 
students are "sent up" for uniform examinations, their 
certificates and degrees being awarded by the central 
educational or university authorities. This system has 
some advantages and some disadvantages for a Christian 
school or college. 

It is an advantage for a graduate to have secured a 
qualification of recognized value. It is an advantage to 
have to maintain a high standard of teaching and study 
under the stimulus of inspection. It is an advantage to 
have the opportunity to shape or improve the educational 
system of province or state from within. Many Christian 
educators have had large influence in fixing the subjects 
of study and the textbooks which must be followed in 
an entire province. 



136 MOVING MILLIONS 

The disadvantages are also numerous. There is always 
the danger that distinctly Christian subjects of study may 
be crowded into a subordinate place. There is the pres- 
sure of increasingly high standards of secular teaching 
which may overload the teachers of an understaffed and 
underfinanced institution and affect the quality of its 
peculiarly Christian activities. There is the pressure and 
preoccupation of an impersonal examination system. 
And where Christian schools are in receipt of grants- 
in-aid from public funds, there is always the possibility 
that their religious activities may be restricted by gov- 
ernment order. It is significant that through the years, in 
the face of these actual or potential disadvantages, the 
Christian schools have maintained very high standards 
of achievement while keeping the daily study of the 
Bible and Christian truth at the center of their program. 
They are known everywhere as standing for the procla- 
mation of the truth as it is exemplified in Christ, and the 
people of India, Hindus and Mohammedans as well as 
Christians, continue to send their sons and daughters 
to them in numbers far beyond their capacity to receive. 

INDIAN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP 
Under the new reformed constitution of the Govern- 
ment of India education is a subject which is entirely 
within the control of the provincial legislatures. The 
Minister for Education in each province is chosen from 
the elected representatives of the people. There are a 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 137 

few British officials still in the educational services but 
their numbers are rapidly diminishing. This is in line 
with the accepted policy of the "Indianization of the 
services." 

Entirely parallel to this process in government serv- 
ice is the change in the management and control of 
Christian institutions. There was a time when almost all 
Christian schools and colleges were managed by mis- 
sionary headmasters and principals. This was to be ex- 
pected in the early days. Today the majority of Christian 
high schools in India have capable and devoted Indian 
principals; and a number of the most important Chris- 
tian colleges are administered by Indians. In fact, the 
success of any Christian institution must really be meas- 
ured by the degree in which it has trained able and de- 
voted leaders to take over its control and management. 
The names of Principal S. K. Datta of Lahore, Principal 
S. K. Rudra and Principal S. N. Mukerji of Delhi, and 
Principal S. C. Chatterji of Cawnpore stand amongst 
the ablest of India's Christian educators. Every Christian 
college in India today has a number of outstanding In- 
dian Christian gentlemen acting as professors and heads 
of departments and members of its board of directors 
or trustees. In the south of India at Alwaye there is the 
Union Christian College, which was founded by Indian 
Christians and is entirely staffed and controlled by them. 
This is one of the most significant and promising ven- 
tures of the Indian church. 



138 MOVING MILLIONS 

Christian colleges fall into several types according to 
their mode of affiliation within the prevailing system. 
They may be major collegiate institutions at great uni- 
versity centers, as at Lahore, Agra, Calcutta, Madras and 
Bombay; they may be outlying colleges occupying im- 
portant territory in provincial cities, as at Rawalpindi 
and Guntur; they may be units in a federal type of uni- 
versity as at Delhi; or they may be "internal colleges" at 
government universities such as at Lucknow, where the 
Isabella Thoburn College for Women is virtually the 
women's department of the university, or at Allahabad, 
where the Ewing Christian University College (popu- 
larly known as "Holland Hall") and the Agricultural 
Institute have the unique position of being Christian col- 
leges within a great and prominent government uni- 
versity. 

HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION FOR WOMEN 

The Christian church and the Christian home and the 
Christian school have provided for India's women the 
greatest awakening and stimulus. Try to imagine the 
baffling problem presented to early missionaries and 
Christian leaders by the age-long seclusion of women 
in the home or behind the veil, and by the prevailing be- 
lief that they are essentially inferior, that they must be 
in subjection, that their only sphere is in the rigidly 
guarded area of the family, that learning and freedom 
and public service are not for them. Many influences to- 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 139 

day are combining to bring about vast and rapid changes 
in the ideas and practices of Hindu and Mohammedan 
society with regard to the position of women. Many 
progressive non-Christian leaders of both sexes are in 
the forefront of these reform movements, but it must be 
recognized that Christian missions have had the greatest 
part in bringing about the new day of enlightenment and 
liberation. "Until 1857 the education of girls and women 
was left almost entirely in the hands of Christian mis- 
sionaries, aided by the courageous revolt of the leaders 
of progressive thought in religion." 1 

All over India, well into the present century, there 
was great prejudice against the education of women 
and much unwillingness on the part of Hindu and 
Moslem parents to send their daughters to school. 
For a hundred years there have been Christian schools 
for Christian boys and girls, as a result of which the 
proportion of literacy among Christian women is about 
seven times as great as among the total female popu- 
lation, notwithstanding that five-sixths of all the Chris- 
tian families in India have come from the lower orders 
of the social scale. 2 Little by little prejudice was broken 
down, here and there a few non-Christian parents began 
to send their daughters to Christian schools, until today 
we see a general awakening in regard to women's edu- 

1 Cornelia Sorabji, in Our Cause, edited by S. K. Nehru, p. 4. Allahabad, 
Kitabistan, 1936. 

* See Lady Hartog in Living India, p. 135. 



140 MOVING MILLIONS 

cation. We must not forget the constant witness that 
has been given through the years by the Christian homes 
of India, in which the women and mothers have been 
free and educated and have taken an active part in the 
life of the surrounding community; nor the example and 
influence of the young Christian women who as educated 
and trained teachers and nurses have shown to India 
what beautiful and necessary service to society women 
are able and entitled to give. 

NEW EMPHASIS ON EDUCATION OF GIRLS 

In every province special officers have been appointed 
to organize and administer girls' education, and Gov- 
ernment and people are giving it new emphasis and at- 
tention, although as yet "owing to conservatism, the 
purdah system, and early marriage, the education of girls, 
in spite of recent advances, is far behind that of boys. 
.... At the primary stage there are four times as many 
boys as girls; at the middle stage eighteen times as many; 
at the 'high' stage thirty-four times as many; in the arts 
colleges there are thirty-three times as many." 1 In other 
words, the great majority of girls who have been priv- 
ileged to go to school at all are taken out of school by 
their parents before they have finished the lower primary 
classes. This constitutes one of the most serious educa- 
tional problems. 

*Sir Philip Hartog, chapter on Education, in Modern India, edited by 
Sir John Gumming. New York, Oxford University Press, 1932. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 141 

While government and private agencies are putting 
special emphasis today upon the extension of girls' edu- 
cation, even now "Christian missions are still making 
an impressive contribution both in extent of educational 
facilities and in quality." 1 Forty-four per cent of all 
girls attending high school in India are enrolled in Chris- 
tian schools, and more than half of all girls attending 
college or being trained as teachers are in Christian mis- 
sionary 'institutions. 2 The pioneering efforts made by 
women missionaries may have seemed very small and 
discouraging, but when we compare them with the vol- 
ume and rapidity of the women's movement in the East 
today we thank God for the courage and vision of those 
devoted women. 

EXAMPLES OF CHRISTIAN COLLEGES FOR WOMEN 
"Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow grew out of 
the boarding school for girls that was established in 
1870 by Miss Isabella Thoburn in a mud-walled room in 
the bazaar. This remarkable woman was the first mis- 
sionary sent out by the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church after its or- 
ganization in 1869. Only one girl came on the opening 
day, but Miss Thoburn was a woman of unfaltering faith 
and she was not discouraged. Before her death, Septem- 

1 Ruth Francis Woodsmall, Eastern Women Today and Tomorrow, pp. 
134-135. Boston, Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Mis- 
sions, 1933. 

a Figures quoted from R. Littlehailes, Progress of Education in India, 
Vol. II, 1922-27. 



142 MOVING MILLIONS 

her 3, 1901, she had seen her little school develop into 
a college in 1886. In 1919, it became a union college." 1 

Isabella Thoburn College, with its present beautiful 
plant, its excellent staff of Indian and American Christian 
teachers, its distinctive Christian atmosphere and in- 
fluence, is an institution in which the church and mis- 
sions may take just pride. 

The outstanding college for women in South India is 
the Women's Christian College of Madras. It was opened 
in 1915 under the auspices of twelve mission boards in 
Britain, the United States and Canada. In twenty years 
its growth has been phenomenal. The principal, Dr. 
Eleanor McDougall, writes: 

"The College opened on July 7, 1915, in a rented 
building called 'Hyde Park' in the southwest region of 
the city. Though small, it was curiously complete even 
at the outset. We had all the four university classes, 
though Class IV consisted of only one member, a stu- 
dent of philosophy. There were ten in the junior B.A. 
class, seven in the senior intermediate class, and twenty- 
three beginners. Among these forty-one students there 
were seven Hindus of various castes, three Anglo-In- 
dians, three Syrian Christians speaking Malayalam, one 
Kanarese girl, several Telugus, and a majority of Tamil- 
speaking students, so that we were polyglot from the 
beginning. 

*A. J. Brown, One Hundred Years, p. 619. New York, Fleming H. 
Revell Co., 1936. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 143 

"The governing body and the staff were already repre- 
sentative of our international, interdenominational and 
intercontinental character. We began with a resident 
staff of five, of whom one was an Indian graduate of 
Madras University, one an American graduate from 
Vassar; Oxford, Cambridge and London were repre- 
sented in the English staff, and the Congregational, Pres- 
byterian and Anglican churches all had adherents among 
us. 

"Several of our most lasting characteristics were pres- 
ent from the first. Morning and evening prayers were 
held daily and a small room, just large enough to hold 
the students, the staff and one or two more, was set 
apart for our chapel. The Sunday evening services be- 
gan on our very first Sunday. We nad physical drill and 
games daily from the first, and one of our earliest sub- 
jects for the debating society was the question whether 
participation in these should be compulsory. We began 
an organization for student self -management, and the 
students met on one of our first evenings to choose the 
motto and the badge of the College. Also we began on 
the first evening of our college life the habit of dining 
together, which has proved a very important instru- 
ment of our unity." 1 

Through generous donations and through sharing in 
the gifts from the West for the "Seven Union Women's 

1 Dr. Eleanor McDougall, in Women's Christian College, Madras, 1915- 
1935. 



144 MOVING MILLIONS 

Colleges in the East," this college now has modern well 
equipped buildings and a college chapel which is one of 
the loveliest places for Christian worship in the whole 
of India. In these twenty years more than a thousand of 
the finest young women of India have studied in this 
college and have gone out to share with the people of 
"their country the blessings of their Christian education. 

A similar story could be told of the early days of the 
Kinnaird College for Women at Lahore, which grew 
out of the Christian Girls' High School of the Zenana 
Bible and Medical Mission. It had its days of small be- 
ginnings. It has received increasingly large classes far 
beyond capacity since 1919- Kinnaird College has now 
purchased a large campus outside the crowded city and 
is ready to enter upon a great day of development if only 
generous supporters can be found. 

Of inestimable value is the great Union Medical Col- 
lege for Women at Vellore, a pioneering venture which 
today has come to fruition under the inspiring leader- 
ship of Dr. Ida Scudder, known to a wide circle of 
friends of India in the West. The ample campus and 
great white buildings of that college are an eloquent re- 
minder of the tender and skillful medical and nursing 
service which its many graduates are rendering to the 
women and children of India today. In the same connec- 
tion should be mentioned the Women's Union Hospital 
and Christian Medical College at Ludhiana, and the St. 
Christophers' Training College for women teachers at 
Madras. 




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144 MOVING MILLIONS 

Colleges in the East," this college now has modern well 
equipped buildings and a college chapel which is one of 
the loveliest places for Christian worship in the whole 
of India. In these twenty years more than a thousand of 
the finest young women of India have studied in this 
college and have gone out to share with the people of 
their country the blessings of their Christian education. 

A similar story could be told of the early days of the 
Kinnaird College for Women at Lahore, which grew 
out of the Christian Girls' High School of the Zenana 
Bible and Medical Mission. It had its days of small be- 
ginnings. It has received increasingly large classes far 
beyond capacity since 1919- Kinnaird College has now 
purchased a large campus outside the crowded city and 
is ready to enter upon a great day of development if only 
generous supporters can be found. 

Of inestimable value is the great Union Medical Col- 
lege for Women at Vellore, a pioneering venture which 
today has come to fruition under the inspiring leader- 
ship of Dr. Ida Scudder, known to a wide circle of 
friends of India in the West. The ample campus and 
great white buildings of that college are an eloquent re- 
minder of the tender and skillful medical and nursing 
service which its many graduates are rendering to the 
women and children of India today. In the same connec- 
tion should be mentioned the Women's Union Hospital 
and Christian Medical College at Ludhiana, and the St. 
Christophers' Training College for women teachers at 
Madras. 




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HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 145 

IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN'S COLLEGES 

There are today seven arts colleges for women in 
India, four of which are maintained by Christian so- 
cieties; and three medical colleges for women, two of 
which are Christian. The importance of these Christian 
colleges for women is well set forth in the statement of 
one of their principals, who writes: 

"All are agreed that at least some women should re- 
ceive the highest education that this country can provide. 
The services of educated women are demanded more 
and more urgently every year, and they are making them- 
selves felt in every department of the new and varied 
life of modern India. As wives of educated men, as 
doctors, teachers, inspectresses, lawyers, secretaries, as 
workers in every field of philanthropic effort, as persons 
of great influence in political movements, as leaders in 
all Christian activities, educated women have already 
won their footing in India and are becoming a force of 
great magnitude. We can do no better service to India 
than to liberate the energies of wisdom and devotion 
which are latent in her women and to infuse into them 
the vital ideals of Christianity." 1 

Further tribute to Christian missionaries is given in 
the following brief quotation: 

"A Hindu woman in India, the wife of one of the 
delegates to the Round Table Conference in London, 

1 Dr. Eleanor McDougall, in Women's Christian College, Madras, 1915- 
1935, p. 4. 



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HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 145 

IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN'S COLLEGES 

There are today seven arts colleges for women in 
India, four of which are maintained by Christian so- 
cieties; and three medical colleges for women, two of 
which are Christian. The importance of these Christian 
colleges for women is well set forth in the statement of 
one of their principals, who writes: 

"All are agreed that at least some women should re- 
ceive the highest education that this country can provide. 
The services of educated women are demanded more 
and more urgently every year, and they are making them- 
selves felt in every department of the new and varied 
life of modern India. As wives of educated men, as 
doctors, teachers, inspectresses, lawyers, secretaries, as 
workers in every field of philanthropic effort, as persons 
of great influence in political movements, as leaders in 
all Christian activities, educated women have already 
won their footing in India and are becoming a force of 
great magnitude. We can do no better service to India 
than to liberate the energies of wisdom and devotion 
which are latent in her women and to infuse into them 
the vital ideals of Christianity." 1 

Further tribute to Christian missionaries is given in 
the following brief quotation: 

"A Hindu woman in India, the wife of one of the 
delegates to the Round Table Conference in London, 

^r. Eleanor McDougall, in Women's Christian College, Madras, 1915- 
, p. 4. 



146 MOVING MILLIONS 

mentions the fact that her first vision of the ideal of in- 
ternational brotherhood came through a Christian 
teacher in an English literature class. Another Hindu 
woman, distinguished for her service to India, says that 
one of the main sources of her inspiration in public life 
has always been the steadfast, fearless willingness to 
sacrifice everything to truth, which as a child she had 
admired in a missionary teacher." 1 

COEDUCATION 

In some parts of India, notably in Madras and Burma 
and Assam, where public sentiment was favorable, there 
was widespread coeducation at the primary stage even 
before the turn of the century. In Christian primary 
schools the practice was common everywhere, but there 
was no attempt to hurry the pace in higher institutions. 
Indian social sentiment, even in the Christian community, 
was left to determine policy in this matter. On the other 
hand, Christian colleges never debarred girls from their 
classes, and even thirty years ago there were occasional 
cases of Indian Christian girls studying for their degrees 
in men's colleges. Those few courageous girls and their 
families were surely pioneers. As time went on their 
number grew, especially as women's colleges soon be- 
came inadequate to the demand for admission and in 

1 Ruth Frances Woodsmall in Eastern Women Today and Tomorrow, p. 
136. Boston, Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 
1933. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA. 147 

most cases could not offer facilities for the teaching of 
science. In some parts of India progressive Hindu senti- 
ment has also been favorable to coeducation, as for ex- 
ample in Poona, where the Fergusson College now pos- 
sesses a dormitory for eighty girl students who attend 
college classes with the men. 

But for the most part this new development has been 
seen in the great Christian colleges. At the Scottish 
Church College in Calcutta and at Forman Christian 
College, Lahore, there are today half a hundred girl 
students. In Bombay and Agra there are hostels for 
women students connected with the mission colleges. 
At Allahabad Christian College there is a temporary 
dormitory for girls newly opened in one of the old mis- 
sion bungalows within the college grounds. Many of 
the other Christian colleges have increasing numbers 
of girls who come in as day students from their own 
homes. This practice is fast gaining ground in the coun- 
try at large, for the people will not now wait for that 
indefinitely distant time when the urgent need for wom- 
en's education might be met by newly established and 
expensive separate institutions. 

PROMINENT WOMEN 

No evidence of the necessity and value of Christian 
education for women can compare with the personalities 
which it has produced and the work which such women 
have been able to do in the world. Miss Woodsmall 



148 MOVING MILLIONS 

writes, after naming a number of outstanding Indian 
women: 

"With such a body of Christian women leaders in the 
Orient, together with the great unnamed number of 
women who in less conspicuous paths of service are 
radiating Christian influence in the life around them, 
the Christian movement today may well feel a conscious- 
ness of past achievement In this effective Chris- 
tian leadership among Eastern women rests the future 
promise of the Christian movement in the Orient." 1 

Among many others, the name of Miss Jamila Siraj- 
ud-Din comes to mind. Her father was one of the first 
Moslem students to give his life to Christ on completing 
his college education in one of our mission colleges and 
to enter into the service of the church as a Christian 
educator. From his Christian home there came sons and 
daughters to the church, Jamila, the eldest, winning a 
scholarship for advanced studies abroad in economics. 
Today she holds the Doctor's degree of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity and is the director of women's industries in a 
great province. On her return to India with her foreign 
degrees and honors, she was given a great public recep- 
tion by the prominent men and women of all communi- 
ties, Christian and non-Christian, who gladly recognized 
the outstanding Christian influence of her father and 
mother, and put the stamp of public approval upon her 
own achievements and public service. 

1 Ruth Frances Woodsmall, Eastern Women Today and Tomorrow, p. 
145 . 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 149 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION 

We have seen that Christian missions have invariably 
developed a system of schools and colleges as a neces- 
sary part of their Christian task. They have needed them 
for the development of the Christian family and the life 
of the church; they have used them as instruments of 
evangelization, they have employed them in the convic- 
tion that the Great Teacher is honored and obeyed in 
the pursuit and dissemination of knowledge and in the 
enlightenment which proceeds from the mind to the 
attitudes and purposes of life; they have been upheld by 
the belief that the eternal truth of Christ will only be 
sought and found when men have gained freedom and 
power to know and shun error and to seek and embrace 
the truth. 1 

It was inevitable that in an enterprise as extensive as 
Christian education has become, there should have de- 
veloped a number of serious problems requiring careful 
study and united effort at solution. During the past few 
years various investigations and surveys have been made, 
the most important and fruitful one being that of the 
Commission on Christian Higher Education in India, 
popularly known as the Lindsay Commission, composed 
of prominent English, American and Indian scholars. 

THE LINDSAY COMMISSION 

In a statement about the Commission, Dr. Lindsay 
says: 



1 See Table of Educational Statistics p. 217. 



150 MOVING MILLIONS 

"Christianity came to India as a religion of hope and 
good news. It found itself confronted with views of the 
world and inherent in the religions of India which taught 
only resignation and a fatalistic acceptance. The founders 
of Christian colleges in India rightly thought that the 
Christian message could only be given in its fullness if 
it was presented not only as a challenge but as a new 
view of the world and God. All over the north of In- 
dia we were told that India, or at least educated India, 
is rapidly ceasing to be religious. Economic or scientific 
determinism is becoming the creed of young India. Only 
Christian knowledge and the Christian view of the world 
can give hope for despair." 

Since the issue of the Lindsay Commission's report, the 
Christian colleges have given themselves to developing 
a program of Christian education for the new day. The 
major recommendations are being continually studied 
and in great measure applied. They are studying the 
possibilities of union, specialization, and cooperation; 
they are examining the possibility of reducing the size 
and intensifying the Christian quality of college work 
done with more highly selected students; they are en- 
deavoring to increase the number and proportion of 
highly trained Indian Christian teachers ; they are striving 
to intensify the personal influence in the colleges upon 
all who live and study in the circle of a Christian fellow- 
ship ; they are facing the desire for more Indian responsi- 
bility and authority in the management and policy of the 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 151 

colleges ; they are examining the need for a closer rela- 
tionship to Indian culture and national life; they are ex- 
ploring the avenues of service to the church and nation; 
they are restudying the essential aims of the col- 
leges in order to make them truly Christian and mis- 
sionary in these days of intellectual and social and po- 
litical change; they are laying plans for far greater identi- 
fication of the Indian church with the support of the 
colleges, and are issuing a carefully considered appeal 
for increased participation and help from the Western 
churches in this day of undreamed-of opportunity. 

THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS 

The results of Christian education make an inspiring 
story. India has today a church of Christ more than six 
million in number. The leaders of this growing church 
are products of our Christian schools and colleges. Many 
of them and many of their fathers received their first 
knowledge of the gospel in Bible classes in these insti- 
tutions. Many of them are prominent and influential 
figures in the councils of the churches and missions and 
in public affairs. Many of the educated Christian men and 
women of India have given their lives to the education 
of their people. 

The value to the nation of men who have received 
Christian training but who may not have become them- 
selves Christian in name, is recognized far and wide and 



152 MOVING MILLIONS 

by non-Christians themselves. Thus Sir Mirza Ismail, 
prime minister of Mysore, stated in a public meeting: 

"They (missionary schools and colleges) have been a 
potent factor in promoting the cause of education and 
the spread of enlightenment and culture in the state, as 
indeed in India as a whole. One has only to turn to in- 
stitutions like the Christian College in Madras, the Wil- 
son College in Bombay, the Forman College in Lahore, 
to realize the magnitude of the contribution which Chris- 
tian missions are making to modern India." 

No one can fail to see the steady and deep penetration 
of Indian life and thought by Christian ideas. This is 
recognized by Hindus themselves and frankly confessed. 
The late Sir Narayan Chandavarkar, president of the 
Bombay Legislative Council and a leading Hindu, said: 

"The process of the conversion of India to Christ may 
not be going on as rapidly as you hope; nevertheless, I 
say, India is being converted. The ideas that lie at the 
heart of the gospel are slowly, but surely, permeating 
every part of Hindu society and modifying every phase 
of Hindu thought." 1 

The Reverend John McKenzie, principal of Wilson 
College, Bombay, whose influence on Indian education 
may be judged from the fact that for a number of years 
he has been vice-chancellor of the Government Uni- 
versity of Bombay, writes: 

1 Quoted by A. J. Brown, in One Hundred Years, p. 663. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 153 

"Christian educational institutions have been exercis- 
ing an enormous influence, intellectually, morally and 
spiritually, on the lives of those who have studied in 
them, and through them, on the life of the whole com- 
munity. It is an influence that has led to comparatively 
few accessions to the Christian church, but, nevertheless, 
it is an influence that is Christian, and that is fraught 
with great significance for the religious life of India and 
of the world. It is manifest in many ways, but I believe 
what is most significant is the fact that the eyes of in- 
creasing numbers of educated men and women are being 
turned to Jesus Christ. They are finding in him not 
merely a great ethical teacher and social reformer, but 
a great guide in the deep things of the spirit, and a great 
illuminator of the ways of God in the world." 1 

Hear the testimony of two other men, one an English- 
man who has spent a long life in work with college stu- 
dents in India and one an American who addressed great 
crowds of Indian students at Christian college centers 
on a recent lecture tour in the East. Canon W. E. S. Hol- 
land writes: 

"I cannot help but contrast the series of meetings held 
by E. Stanley Jones with the series I arranged for John 
R. Mott twenty-five years ago. Dr. Mott spoke to that 
audience for three nights and dared not mention the 
name of Jesus Christ until the fourth night, and when 

1 From "Higher Education," by John McKenzie, in The Christian Task 
in India, edited by Mr. McKenzie, p. 97. New York, the Macmillan Co., 
1929. 



154 MOVING MILLIONS 

he did, the whole meeting broke up in confusion; the 
leading Hindus stalked out. The name of Jesus Christ 
stood for everything that they hated. Now, you begin 
with the name of Christ as your first word; you interpret 
him for them in the light of their need; they sit here 
night after night and want more of it. I am astonished 
at the difference." 1 

Dr. J. Harry Cotton, who gave the lectures in India 
in 1931-1932 on the Joseph Cook Foundation "for the 
defense of Christianity in the Orient," reported that "it 
was a revelation to see the readiness and reverence with 
which the Oriental students received the lecture on the 
Cross. At the close of the lecture in Madras, the Hindu 
chairman, a professor of philosophy in a Hindu uni- 
versity, made this amazing statement to the Hindu audi- 
ence: 

" 'We have been seeking for a fuller revelation of 
God. We have expected that revelation in terms of over- 
whelming majesty. We were not prepared for the revela- 
tion which came in the face of one who, for the sins of 
the world, was ready to bear the shame of the Cross.' " 2 

CENTERS OF CHRISTIAN LIFE AND SERVICE 
Every Christian school and college constitutes a Chris- 
tian center of life and fellowship. Nowhere else in the 
East can you find groups of men and women, Indian, 

1 Quoted by A. J. Brown, in One Hundred Years, p. 662. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 155 

European and American, who have so completely learned 
the happy secret of comradeship in a common life and 
task. Here are peers and partners enjoying and demon- 
strating the unity which is found only in Christ. Such a 
Christian fellowship is a potent factor not only on the 
campus, and in the homes and lives of the students, but 
also in the neighborhood and community and city. This 
feature has not been given sufficient emphasis in the past. 
Every such institution furnishes a field of Christian effort 
for its members and stands out as a compact and effective 
and recognized Christian group in the midst of the non- 
Christian world. 

In such a fellowship scope is also found for common 
social effort in intimate comradeship with non-Christian 
students and friends who are actuated by the high Chris- 
tian motive which they have imbibed. It is in Christian 
colleges all over India where one finds that organized 
social service activities have been maintained with high 
idealism and consistent effort for many years. 

Such inspiration for service came to Mohan, who be- 
longs to a very poor but orthodox Hindu family of good 
caste village cultivators, living in a small mud brick 
cottage. By cruel self-denial the father sent his boy to 
the mission high school in hopes that he might qualify 
himself as a village, teacher and thus add to the meagre 
family income. While in high school, Mohan had the 
vision of going on to college, in order to be better 
equipped to give his life to the needs of his village 



156 MOVING MILLIONS 

people. He earned his expenses by doing any kind of 
work, scarcely having enough to eat or to wear. He 
had been coming for daily morning prayers to the 
home of one of his professors for over three years. 
One morning he announced with radiant face, "This 
is my twentieth birthday. It is also my spiritual birth- 
day, for today I have decided to give my heart to 
Christ as my Savior." Ever since, he has been making 
every effort to bring Christ to his village and to win his 
family. He has organized a social service league of stu- 
dents who are doing rural uplift and educational work 
in near-by villages. He is also teaching outcaste boys and 
girls on the college campus to read the Bible. This keen 
and earnest young man who lives in real poverty said 
recently, "I am the happiest man in all the world. Jesus 
has given me everything I need and want. What do you 
think he would most like to have me do for him?" Such 
students work in partnership with their Christian teach- 
ers. 

DESIRE FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY 
Educated Christian leaders have long been chafing un- 
der the disunity of the church. This is discussed in an- 
other chapter but we may well mention here the part 
which Christian schools and colleges have played in 
bringing about the will to union. There are few Christian 
schools and almost no Christian colleges which have 
been in a position to recruit their teaching staffs from 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 157 

members of a single Christian denomination. The best 
available Christian teacher of suitable qualifications is 
the one who will be appointed. The result has been that 
almost every Christian institution of higher grade has be- 
come the center of an interdenominational Christian 
community. These families form the backbone of the 
local church, and furnish increasing numbers of Christian 
men and women who by conviction and experience stand 
for a united church. Their voice is being increasingly 
heard in the ecclesiastical councils where the matter of 
church union is today assuming major importance. 

THE STUDENT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 
At the present moment plans are being made for the 
quadrennial conference of the Student Christian Associ- 
ation of India, Burma and Ceylon. For the second time in 
its history there will gather large numbers of men and 
women students from the colleges and universities, meet- 
ing in combined conference to grapple with the problems 
which confront the Christian church and Christian youth. 
Every person who was present at the last quadrennial 
conference will testify to the feeling of wonder and 
amazement at the sight of five hundred selected dele- 
gates, young men and young women in equal number, 
representing all the provinces and states as well as the 
various branches of the Christian church in India, as- 
sembled on the beautiful campus of the Allahabad Chris- 
tian College on the banks of the river Jamna. Never be- 



158 MOVING MILLIONS 

fore had such a sight been seen in India. Think what it 
means to a land where women have lived in seclusion 
and ignorance, where language and race and religious 
community separate and divide, that such a company of 
Christian young people should meet, should share in 
common meals and games and fellowship, should wor- 
ship and commune together and should together under 
able leadership, and in devotion to a common Master, 
their great Leader, Jesus Christ, face the needs of their 
beloved country and the opportunity and challenge of 
Christian service! 

The spirit of this unique and epoch-making conference 
was typified by an answer made by one of the young 
Christian delegates, to a great Hindu national political 
leader who came to the conference one day as a guest 
speaker. In thanking the distinguished Nationalist for his 
message, in which he had referred to his passion for 
India's freedom and his longing for better unity between 
the different races and communities, this courageous 
young Christian said, "But the realization of our cher- 
ished dreams can be possible only through Jesus Christ, 
and his spirit and his principles. When he comes to India 
in all his power, a new heaven and a new earth will 
dawn for us all." 

The Student Christian Association, with its excellent 
organization and far-reaching influence, is perhaps the 
most important of the student movements of India today 
in its effect upon the great work of the Christian church. 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 159 

WHY MAINTAIN CHRISTIAN COLLEGES IN INDIA? 

We may conclude this chapter by asking three ques- 
tions. 

1. Why should an Indian parent or student choose a 
Christian institution rather than one conducted by the 
Government or by a private Hindu or Mohammedan 
society? 

The fact is that they do, and in far larger numbers 
than Christian schools and colleges can admit them. 
There is something in the study of the Bible and Chris- 
tian truth, in the presentation of the Christian way of 
life, in the relationship between the Christian teachers 
and their pupils, in the character and attitudes and pur- 
poses produced by Christian training which proves its 
own value. Thus Mr. William Paton writes: 

"The Christian college has stood for an education 
rooted and grounded in a religious view of the world. 
However cabined and confined by the circumstances 
which have been outlined, it has preserved an ideal of the 
utmost worth, and every college principal knows of the 
Hindu and Moslem parents who send their boys to him, 
hoping earnestly that they will not become Christians 
and prepared to persecute them if they do, but not less 
earnestly desiring the moral and spiritual atmosphere 
which they find in the mission college and usually no- 
where else." 1 



1 Educational Yearbook, 1933, New York, p. 371. New York, Teachers 
College, Columbia University, 1933. 



160 MOVING MILLIONS 

2. Why should a missionary or Indian Christian de- 
sire to spend his life teaching in a Christian school or 
college in India? 

The first answer to this question assumes that such a 
teacher is one who believes sincerely in the Lord Jesus 
Christ and desires to proclaim and share his faith. Having 
faced the fundamental requirements of Christian con- 
viction and purpose, and finding here the opportunity to 
witness and share, the teacher may go on to discover also 
the satisfaction of living in a group where Christian 
unity is found, the stimulus of contact with those who 
represent the churches of East and West, and the con- 
sciousness that the young men and young women under 
his care are being enriched and inspired by all these re- 
lationships as well as by the instruction and discipline 
which they are receiving. 

3. Why should the church be interested in a Christian 
school or college in India? 

We are interested because such colleges represent the 
only agency maintained to select and train the Christian 
leaders of the church and of the nation, the men and 
women who will bring to bear on Indian thought and 
society and life the great Christian principles of indi- 
vidual character and social justice. 

"It is the aim of the Christian college to stem the tide 
of doubt or atheism by presenting faith in Christ as a 
true, rational and workable faith, the only faith that 



HIGHER CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 161 

will save India and satisfy its age-long yearning after 
God." 1 

In these momentous days of India's history there is 
the necessity as never before for the highest type of edu- 
cated leaders, men and women with Christian ideals and 
of Christian quality and purpose, if that great people is 
to go steadily forward on the path of national realization. 

A STATESMAN'S ESTIMATE 

Indeed the colleges of India may well have a function 
to perform which is of utmost necessity to the world to- 
day. The Marquis of Lothian, who was a member of the 
Parliamentary Select Committee entrusted with the task 
of preparing the draft of the reformed Constitution for 
India, has called attention to the extraordinary signifi- 
cance of the Christian colleges of India for the world. 
Speaking in New York in 1934 on the approaching 
change in the form of India's government, and the exist- 
ing communal and religious divisions in India, he said: 

"In this situation is there any force comparable to that 
which can be exercised by the Indian Christian colleges 
for bridging these interior gulfs and for producing the 
kind of leader who can lead India toward both unity and 
freedom in the terrific experiment which is being 
launched today? The spirit of Christ shining through 
those institutions can transform much of young India, 

1 F. M. Velte, "Christian Colleges and the Students of India," in The 
Presbyterian,, January, 1937. 



162 MOVING MILLIONS 

and so produce leaders who are immune to or who can 
surmount the communal feeling. 

"The work that can be done by the Indian Christian 
colleges is not only of value to India but of supreme 
value to the world. If the Indian experiment fails, if co- 
operation between Great Britain and India during the 
next ten or fifteen difficult years breaks down, whether 
through the inability of the British to move fast enough, 
to put themselves into the shoes of another nation, or 
whether through the inability of India to settle down to 
the practical working of the Constitution, the result will 
be further chaos for the world. So I feel very deeply that 
the Indian Christian colleges have an immensely im- 
portant work to do, a work not only for India, as impor- 
tant as it is, but even more for the whole of humanity in 
the present day." 



CHAPTER VI 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 

By THE RT. REV. V. S. AZARIAH, Bishop of Dornakal 

WE are attending church on a Sunday morning 
in a city of South India. This particular church 
belongs to the Anglican Communion, but 
much that we see will be found also among the non- 
Roman churches everywhere, although these are divided 
into about a hundred and fifty different groups. 

The church has pews as in American churches. Long 
before the service begins the church is full; in fact 
people hasten to church as soon as the first bell rings 
half an hour before service time, for fear of failing to 
get a seat. A few of the men and young men are clad in 
European costume, whereas the women without excep- 
tion are dressed in the beautiful silk saris of various 
colors, which are universally recognized as the dress 
of Indian ladies. The men sit on one side and the women 
on the other. Every man and woman carries the Book of 
Common Prayer, a Directory of Worship, a hymn book, 
and a big vernacular Bible. The women's heads are 
covered with their saris. 

When the second bell stops every seat is taken. A pro- 
cessional voluntary is played on an organ or harmonium. 

163 



164 MOVING MILLIONS 

Worship according to the exact pattern of the particular 
church's ecclesiastical mother is followed. The hymns 
sung are translations of the English or German originals, 
set to the original tune. Very probably also one or two 
lyrics sung are set to Indian airs. The offerings are 
usually generous. The orderliness, the reverence and the 
outward respectability of the congregation strikes us as 
of a very high order. We walk in and join the worship, 
and thank God for the high standard achieved by the 
educated Christian community. 

There are, however, certain things that may sadden 
us: the totally foreign character of the service, the for- 

/ O- ' 

eign hymnology and melodies, the Western-organ or 
harmonium played even in accompaniment to the indig- 
enous tunes, the foreign architecture of the sacred 
edifice, the pews, so incongruous in a place of worship 
in India and so inconveniently arranged that they make 
kneeling for prayer difficult, if not impossible. These 
are all blemishes that will only be detected by trained 
eyes; they are the heritage of the past, copies of Western 
church architecture innocently introduced by the early 
missionaries. The growth of Nationalism; the new ideas 
that are taking hold of the younger missionaries a's well 
as Indian Christians of the present generation; the ex- 
periments going on here and there of adapting indige- 
nous temple architecture to Christian church buildings; 
encouragement given to Indian music, and to other ex- 
ternal accompaniments of worship these all point to- 
ward a better future. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 165 

A VILLAGE CHURCH 

Several miles from the city we visit another church; a 
rural church in a Telugu village. Our car cannot com- 
fortably enter the village, but a band of village young 
men meets us outside to push it along the sandy path. 
This path has been prepared especially for the visitors 
a mound here has been knocked down, a pit there filled 
up, and a branch above lopped off. We pass right 
through the aristocratic quarters of the village, for the 
dwellings of the caste people have to be passed before 
one comes to the outcaste quarters where the church 
is situated. Flags and bunting are profusely in evidence, 
and in arches, probably a little triangular and bent in 
parts, are signs made of colored paper with "Welcome" 
(sometimes spelt with a double "1!") in English. Rows 
of men, women and children greet us outside the church 
and we go in with them. 

All the people are cleanly dressed, the men with 
shirts, a few perhaps with coats, on one side, and the 
women in beautiful white and colored sans on the other, 
all seated on the floor, which is covered with palm leaf 
mats - Ajjric is started and lustily sung, to the accom- 
paniment of a drum, perhaps a violin .or two, and cer- 
tainly a pair of cymbals to beat time. The beauty of In- 
dian music does not consist in the blending of various 
parts into rich harmony, but in the rhythmic swing of its 
cadence enriched by drum and cymbals. With such in- 
digenous accompaniments Christian hymns are sung to 



166 MOVING MILLIONS 

native Junes, which sweetly speak to the Indian heart. 
The people, very obviously, enter into the singing with 
their whole heart and soul and we, the spectators, even 
though we may not understand, cannot fail to be stirred 
by the swing of the melody and almost unconsciously 
led to adoration and worship. 

With this preparation, the service begins. If we are in 
an Anglican church the Venite (Psajrn j|5_)L is sung to an 
Indian tune, the psalms are sung not to a foreign chant, 
but to a Telugu lyric, the Te Deum is most attractively 
rendered in the same way, the Creed is recited, and brief 
prayers are said. Instruction is then given through the 
catechetical method: the people answer questions or 
complete a quotation from Scripture. 

Finally come the offerings. The congregation remains 
seated, singing. Women walk up to the minister and 
hand him little bags or empty them in their proper 
places. These contain the handfuls of grain or flour set 
apart as God's portion each time a meal was cooked dur- 
ing the previous week. Some women may have also in 
their hands a few beans, a pumpkin, snake-gourds, or 
cucumbers raised in their private gardens if these are in 
season. Perhaps there are also one or two eggs. The 
offerings made, the whole congregation stands up in 
silence, the singing is stopped, the minister walks down 
the aisle with the alms basin and empties into it the 
contents of the brass vessels that stand on the pedestals 
in the body of the church, and says a prayer, lifting up 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 167 

to God the offerings of the people, who say "Amen," 
still all standing. No collection plates are passed 
around; every worshipper on entering the church de- 
posits his offering of coins in these vessels. Perhaps a 
prayer is said and the minister retires; the congregation 
sing a recessional lyric, kneel reverently, and depart 
after a short private prayer. 

Such a service may be seen any Sunday of the year in 
any Anglican church in the Dornakal diocese; but apart 
from the use of the forms prescribed in the Book of 
Common Prayer, the same type of worship may be seen 
in any one of the non-Episcopal churches. The sitting 
on the floor, the Indian music, the indigenous lyrics, the 
cleanliness and reverence of the worshippers; the offer- 
ings in kind and in coin, are common to all. 

Every area in India contains in it a few town churches 
of the first type and a large number of rural churches 
of the second type. Four-fifths of all India's people 
dwell in villages having five hundred persons and un- 
der, and only eleven per cent live in towns of five thou- 
sand and more. Hence if India is to be evangelized, the 
villages must be evangelized; if an indigenous church is 
to be built up, it should be the rural church. 

STAGES OF MISSIONARY WORK 
The first stage of missionary work opens when the 
missionary begins the task of evangelization, and either 
alone or with a few Indian assistants from a neighboring 



168 MOVING MILLIONS 

older field goes about itinerating in his area, proclaim- 
ing the message of salvation. When the first converts are 
made, they are baptized and the nucleus of a church 
comes into being. The missionary naturally becomes the 
leader, the shepherd and the pastor of his converts. This 
perhaps goes on for a number of years. During all this 
time the missionary is all-important. 

The second stage may be said to begin when the mis- 
sionary has succeeded in bringing some of the converts 
to communicant status. A son of early converts is made 
a minister of the church. The task of the missionary 
from that moment on will be to associate this indigenous 
minister and the church with himself; to take the pastor 
into his fullest confidence; to place upon members of 
the church the responsibility for the evangelization of 
their countrymen; to impart to them the missionary zeal 
that inspired him to come out of his native land to be a 
messenger of Christ to a foreign people. In this second 
stage the missionary is not all-important; he is the 
leader, and the Indian minister is his helper. 

But soon must come the third stage, when in this 
indigenous church with an indigenous ministry there is 
an organization under councils or synods. At this stage 
the church must become the primary factor, the mission- 
ary its helper. He may be the chairman of. the church 
council, or one of his former assistants may be the chair- 
man. Whatever his official position may be, he will 
recognize that he is not the "boss." The Christian task is 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 169 

not his, but the church's. The work must henceforth be, 
not mission-centric, but church-centric. His Christian 
heritage, his spirtual experience, his superior learning 
will still give him a position of moral and spiritual lead- 
ership. He still will be needed to inspire and guide the 
infant church. His services still will be required to im- 
part to the young in school and college the hope of the 
future, to train teachers and ministers, the future leaders 
and guides of the church, and to be the medium of com- 
munication between his home church and this daughter 
church, and thus the mediator between this church and 
the holy catholic church of Western Christendom. 

This is the third stage, when the church is given recog- 
nition as the important factor in the Christianization of 
the land. The missionary will constantly keep before his 
mind that this church is the local representative of the 
body of Christ, in which his spirit dwells; that it is that 
church's privilege and function to witness to the world 
of its Savior and Lord; that it is its birthright to develop 
and grow in accordance with the life of God implanted 
in it; and that it must exhibit that life in characteristics 
true to the soil in which it is planted. Ever will be on his 
lips the words of John the Baptist adapted to the case: It 
(the church) must increase and I (the missionary) must 
decrease. Most mission fields have great need of such 
large-hearted missionaries. 



170 MOVING MILLIONS 

THE INDIAN CHURCH DEFINED 

One of the most important results achieved by the 
World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910 was 
the recognition it gave to the church in the mission field. 
The chairman of the commission on the church in the 
mission field used these memorable words, which might 
be said to sum up the finding of the commission: "You 
have now what we begin to call not a little but a great 
church, .... established in the very heart of the pagan 
world, .... the young Christian church which mis- 
sions have founded, but which is itself now the great mis- 
sion to the non-Christian world." 1 The indigenous church 
has since then been unquestionably acknowledged to be 
the greatest, the most potent and the most natural factor 
in the evangelization of any country. On the efficiency, 
the purity and witness of this church the Christianization 
of that country will ultimately depend. 

But, alas, what we call the Indian church is not one 
entity. The divisions of Christendom make it impossible 
for twentieth century Christians of any country to be- 
long to a single ecclesiastical organization. There are 
in consequence as many churches and groups in India 
as there are those who send out missionaries from the 
West. Further, it must be said that in this chapter we 
are leaving out of consideration the 300,000 who belong 
to the various European races and to the Anglo-Indian 

The Church in the Mission, Field; Report of Commission II, 



p. 341. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 171 

community, though these latter are truly indigenous. 
In the early years of missionary enterprise the Anglo- 
Indian community were often very closely associated 
with missionaries from abroad in the work of evange- 
lization, education, and in the production of Christian 
literature. They are still capable of playing a great part 
in missionary work. 

In this chapter, the Indian church will mean the 
Indian members of the churches, leaving out of ac- 
count those who have their services conducted for them 
in the English language and who truly may be called 
the English church in India. The Indian church in this 
chapter is the theoretical aggregate of the indigenous 
Christians in all the churches, owning very many dif- 
ferent church loyalties, following many forms of differ- 
ing ecclesiastical traditions, worshipping in many In- 
dian languages, with a great variety of form and ritual 
throughout the length and breadth of this vast con- 
tinent. There are a few affirmations that may be made 
of them all: they are all classified as Indian Christians 
for government purposes, they worship in one of the 
two hundred languages and dialects of India, they have 
a distinct religious genius, which finds expression in 
their formularies of worship and in the directing of their 
common life, even though they remain members of dif- 
ferent Christian bodies. On them both separately and 
together lies the responsibility for making our Lord 
known to their countrymen. 



172 MOVING MILLIONS 

The total Indian Christian community in India and 
Burma in the year 1931 was 5,990,234, of whom two- 
thirds are in South India, that is in the Madras Presi- 
dency and the states of Hyderabad, Mysore, and Trav- 
ancore adjoining it. About two and a half millions are 
Roman Catholics and Romo-Syrians, half a million are 
Syrian Christians, the remaining three millions are con- 
nected with non-Roman and non-Syrian churches. India 
has then the largest indigenous Christian community 
in all Asia. 

The rate of increase of the Indian Christian population 
from 1872-1931 was as follows: 

1872-1881 22 per cent 

1881-1891 34 per cent 

1891-1901 31 per cent 

1901-1911 34 per cent 

1911-1921 25 per cent 

1921-1931 34 per cent 

During the decade 1921-1931 

Buddhists increased 10.5 per cent 

Moslems increased 13 per cent 

Hindus increased 10.4 per cent 

Christians increased (non-Roman) 41 per cent 

The oldest Christian community in India is that of 
the Syrian Christians, in the state of Travancore. Tra- 
dition connects the introduction of Christianity into 
Travancore with the apostle St. Thomas. Most scholars 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 173 

are agreed that there is no historical proof to discredit 
this tradition. 

There were in the year 1931 a total of 1,180,546 
Syrian Christians, a fifth of the entire Christian popu- 
lation of India. This number is unfortunately distrib- 
uted among many churches of different loyalties: the 
Orthodox Jacobite, the Reformed, the Chaldean, the 
Roman and the Anglican. All the sections of the Syrian 
churches are presided over by Indian bishops and have 
always been independent of foreign support. Perhaps 
the most alive and growing section of all is the Re- 
formed Church of St. Thomas. Besides supporting a 
large number of priests and evangelists in Travancore, 
this church has undertaken missionary work of its own 
in Cochin and North Kanara. In general education, in 
high ideals of Christian conduct, and in capacity for 
leadership the Syrian Christians are second to none in 
India. 

The majority of the rest of the Christian community 
belongs to the Roman communion. They number 2,113,- 
000. They are found in all parts of the country, and 
in large numbers in the provinces of Madras, Bom- 
bay, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The greatest and one 
of the earliest missionaries of the Roman church was 
Francis Xavier, who landed in India in 1543 and 
founded the church in the coastal villages and towns in 
South India. The Roman Catholic Church has done a 
great work in the educational field. Loyala College in 



174 MOVING MILLIONS 

Madras and St. Joseph's College in Trichinopoly are 
instances. By their exclusive claims and indiscriminate in- 
vasion of the territories of other missions and churches, 
they often interfere with the discipline of these other 
churches and make it very difficult for others to entertain 
feelings of Christian friendliness with them. 

ORGANIZATION 

The administrative organization of the Indian 
churches naturally varies according to the ecclesiastical 
tradition of the particular church that founded them. 
The Indian churches under the nurture of the Lu- 
therans naturally follow the Lutheran church model in 
government, worship, and teaching; those under the 
Methodists similarly follow the Methodist pattern; 
those under Anglican or Independent churches likewise 
are organized on those patterns. But probably some such 
general form as follows may be true under all ecclesias- 
tical polities. 

We begin from a village unit. A village or a group 
of two or three villages are placed under the care of a 
teacher and his wife. Fifteen or twenty-five such groups 
with about ten to fifteen teachers are shepherded by an 
ordained minister or pastor. A pastorate committee (or 
the quarterly meeting or church committee) consisting 
of the pastor or chairman and a number of lay members 
elected by the communicants, assist the pastor in the 
general administration. In all church organizations In- 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 175 

dian laymen predominate. The pastorate committee usu- 
ally has charge of the local church expenses, adminis- 
tration o the poor fund, and the people's offerings for 
the support of their ministry and the supervision of all 
church property in the locality. They also assist the 
pastor in the maintaining of church discipline and in 
the oversight of the parish schools. 

As a rule these Indian church committees have to do 
only with the funds they themselves raise and are re- 
sponsible only for the departments of church work car- 
ried on with these limited resources. It is, however, 
becoming increasingly the practice in most missions to 
place greater responsibilities on the district councils 
and to make them grants from the missionary society, 
enabling them to carry on their budget all elementary 
education, local evangelization, and all pastoral work 
wherever such responsibilities are placed upon the In- 
dian church. Where leadership is in the hands of ca- 
pable and spiritually minded Indian ministers it has been 
invariably found to result in increased offerings from 
the people for the work of the church; and in greater 
realization of their responsibility for the support of 
their ministry and for the evangelization of their coun- 
try. The acceptance of such responsibilities brings with 
it greater dependence upon divine resources and there- 
fore a richer spiritual experience to leaders and the 
people. 
As soon as there is a communicant membership in a 



176 MOVING MILLIONS 

village of in a group of villages, they should be or- 
ganized under a pastorate committee so that from the 
very beginning the responsibility for evangelism, for 
discipline, and for the administration of funds may be 
shared by the chosen representatives of the people. 
Where this is delayed, the congregations tend to lean 
upon the missionary, a dependence which is wholly 
inimical to true development. It is also important that 
from the very outset young people should be picked 
for higher training in residential schools and given op- 
portunities of self-development in order that from 
among them an indigenous ministry may be raised up. 
Such residential schools are a feature in all missions. 
The children can as a rule be supported by scholarships 
of twenty-five dollars a year. An indigenous ministry 
promotes Christian giving and hastens local ministerial 
support. Lack of such giving, however, should not be 
made an argument for keeping congregations under 
foreign pastoral supervision. 

ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATIONS 

A feature of Indian church life in the twentieth cen- 
tury is the setting up of ecclesiastical organizations in 
different parts of India. 

In the year 1907 the Presbyterian and Congregational 
churches of South India formed themselves into the 
South India United Church. The churches established 
through the missionary agencies of the American Board 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 177 

of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the Reformed 
Church in America, the Church of Scotland, and the 
United Free Church of Scotland form the constituent 
parts of this church. Its supreme governing body is the 
General Assembly, which meets once every two years 
and more than once Indians have been elected to the 
moderatorship. Its total Christian community in 1936 
was about 263,000, of whom 53,000 were communicants, 
ministered to by about 240 ordained ministers. 

The United Church of Northern India is a similar 
ecclesiastical organization formed in 1924 through the 
union of the Presbyterian Church in India and the Con- 
gregational Churches of Western India. At the time of 
union the former group, which had been organized in 
1905, combined various churches of Presbyterian polity 
in North India, established by the missions of the Ameri- 
can, Scotch, Irish, Welsh, Australian, New Zealand and 
Canadian Presbyterian churches. At the end of 1935, 
there was affiliated with the church a total baptized com- 
munity of 251,706 of whom 77,350 were communicant 
members. In 1931 the ordained ministers of the United 
Church numbered 444. 

The Federation of Evangelical Lutheran Churches 
is an organization established in 1926. The churches of 
American and of Continental Lutheran origin having 
mother boards in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, 
Germany, Switzerland, are in this federation. 

The Church of England in India had always been by 



178 MOVING MILLIONS 

statute subject to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the 
British Parliament. The bishoprics of Calcutta, Madras 
and Bombay were created by act of Parliament. For the 
creation of every subsequent diocese parliamentary sanc- 
tion had to be sought, and no consecration of a bishop 
could be undertaken without a mandate from the King. 
The legal connection between the Church of England in 
India and the Church of England in Britain was, at the 
request of the former, severed in 1927 by the passing of 
the Indian Church Measure by the National Assembly of 
the Church of England. From March 1, 1930, the Angli- 
can church in India took the name "Church of India, 
Burma and Ceylon" and became an autonomous branch 
of the Anglican communion. Its total membership in the 
year 1934 was 450,000, shepherded by 1,179 ordained 
ministers, of whom 212 were ministering to English con- 
gregations. These creations have been instrumental in 
bringing to the people a church consciousness which has 
been most valuable. 

INDIAN LEADERSHIP 

The National Missionary Council (now the National 
Christian Council of India, Burma, and Ceylon) , at its 
very first session in 1912, emphasized the necessity for 
the development of Indian leadership. One of its resolu- 
tions recorded the conviction "that whenever capable 
and spiritually minded men and women are discovered, 
churches and missions should make a real and unmis- 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 179 

takable advance by placing Indians on a footing of com- 
plete equality, in status and responsibility, with Eu- 
ropeans and thus open for them the highest and the 
most responsible positions in every department of mis- 
sionary activity." In this connection the Council also 
emphasized the principle that the work carried on by 
foreign missionary societies should be gradually trans- 
ferred, as opportunities offered, to the Indian church, 
and that suitable modifications of existing organizations 
should be adopted, wherever necessary, so that this 
principle might be carried out by missionary bodies. 

The past twenty-five years have seen an enormous 
development in the direction contemplated in that reso- 
lution. In many areas, charges of districts once held by 
missionaries from abroad have now been transferred to 
suitable Indian leaders. Educational institutions and 
hospitals once under foreign control have been placed 
under Indian supervision. In some areas "the superin- 
tending missionary" no longer exists; his huge districts 
have been sub-divided and placed under Indian minis- 
ters. In handling mission funds and accounts, in keep- 
ing the work at an efficient standard, and in the vigilant 
and firm exercise of discipline over their subordinate 
fellow workers, many Indian Christians are proving 
themselves worthy of the trust placed in their hands. 
Such leaders, however, are not plentiful. On the one 
hand, far more Indian leaders of this type are needed 
than are available at present; and on the other hand, a 



180 MOVING MILLIONS 

still bolder policy is essential in all missions and churches 
of entrusting to Indians greater and greater responsibili- 
ties. The carrying of responsibility trains character, de- 
velops leadership, and drives men to throw themselves 
upon God. At a time when the spirit of Nationalism 
sweeps over the land, and all that is un-Indian is looked 
upon with suspicion, it is vital that everything possible 
should be done both in appearance and in reality to 
identify the Christian movement with the indigenous 
church and indigenous leadership. 

THE CHURCH IN INDIAN Civic LIFE 

The Indian Christian's increasing freedom from caste 
prejudice and partisanship, his general uprightness in 
conduct, his early training in residential schools and 
colleges under men and women educators of supreme 
sacrifice and devotion, ought to fit him to be preem- 
inently an officer of high efficiency in the state service 
That this is so is shown by the recognition given to In- 
dian Christians by people and Government. In speaking 
to an Indian Christian audience in South India, the Eu 
ropean district officer said that "the church has con 
tributed an ever increasing number of able officers tc 
the public services and also given a large percentage oi 
good and able men to other professions." At the tim< 
of writing this, three states have Indian Christian prim< 
ministers; some of the largest municipal corporation; 
have or have had Indian Christian executive officers o: 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 181 

commissioners often selected by non-Christian coun- 
cilors. Hindu princes and rulers have invited qualified 
.Indian Christians to become headmasters for their 
Hindu high schools. The fact that these and similar ap- 
pointments are acceptably held by members of the com- 
munity indicates that the service that the Christian In- 
dian can render to national life is unlimited. 

Indian Christians, though numerically small, are well 
in advance of others in education and literacy. Of the 
6,000,000 Indian Christians, 1,148,325, or 21 per cent, 
are literate. This percentage is higher than that of 
Hindus, Moslems, or Sikhs. The Indian Christian women 
stand well ahead of all in the matter of education, the 
proportion per thousand being 15 for Moslems, 21 for 
Hindus, and 148 for Indian Christians. Only the Parsees, 
a small highly cultured group, exceed this proportion. 

The proportion of literacy among Christians is by 
no means sufficient, of course. Every effort is being made 
to raise it, for the church cannot rest satisfied until every 
boy and girl, man and woman can read the Bible. The 
problem while urgent cannot be solved immediately or 
without much patient and continuous work. It is, how- 
ever, gratifying to note that despite large numbers of il- 
literate people coming into the church year after year, 
literacy among Christians in India fell only 1.5 per thou- 
sand between 1921 and 1931. 

While we thus frankly face the problem of literacy 
of the Indian Christian community we cannot shut our 



182 MOVING MILLIONS 

eyes to the great advance already made. Whereas Chris- 
tians constitute only about one and a half per cent of 
the population, seven per cent of those engaged in the 
teaching profession are Christians. There is probably no 
other community that has such a large proportion of its 
total number engaged in imparting primary education. 
To become the teachers of young India and to spread 
through the length and breadth of that land the bless- 
ings of education is no mean privilege. The service 
rendered through this one channel alone ought to 
justify the claim of the Indian church to be one of the 
most powerful factors in the regeneration of the land. 

CHRISTIAN GIVING 

Thus far nothing has been said about self-support 
that ubiquitous word found in all modern missionary 
literature. I am second to none in my desire to see Indian 
Christians realize their stewardship of all they possess 
and the duty of Christian giving. Christian life cannot 
be healthy and complete unless it exhibits this grace 
also. Those who dedicate themselves to the Lord will 
certainly dedicate their money also. Those who profess 
to love the Lord must love him with all their soul, with 
all their mind and with all their strength. So much 
money means just so much intellectual ability or phys- 
ical power or happy inheritance, and these should surely 
be dedicated to God, if one professes to be his. 

Notwithstanding all this conviction I am conscious 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 183 

that very often insistence on self-support as the first 
duty of a church, or as the index of a church's capacity 
to accept responsibilities, or as the preliminary requisite 
of self-government or freedom, can do as great harm to 
the spiritual life of the indigenous church as to that of 
the older church. Spiritual values cannot be measured by 
material standards. To say that a church's first business 
is to pay the salaries of its ministers and that a congre- 
gation can only administer funds that they themselves 
give, is to apply to the Indian church principles which 
do not apply to many state-aided churches of Europe, 
nor to churches partly supported by home mission funds 
in the United States. Let the placing of responsibility 
upon the churches and the participation of the leaders 
in all the councils of the churches go on as fast as these 
churches show fitness and desire for such responsibili- 
ties. Let the missionary and mission boards definitely 
train the church for these responsibilities, and let Chris- 
tian giving be cultivated in the church as all other vir- 
tues are, through teaching, prayer and example. 

We lack sufficient information from all missions and 
churches to enable us to state accurately how much 
Indian Christians contribute of their substance to the 
support of Christian work. In many fields vast sums of 
money are collected for the construction of churches 
and chapels and their repairs that do not come into 
mission purview. Further, what the people contribute in 
personal labor for the construction of churches, schools 



184 MOVING MILLIONS 

and teachers' and ministers' houses is most difficult of 
appraisal in rupees, annas and pies. There is also this 
further difficulty: the proportion of giving per baptized 
Christian differs in different areas according to the earn- 
ing capacity of the people. In South India the average 
for a whole district was a dollar a year for every com- 
municant member. In the backward communities in the 
Telugu country it is generally about eighty cents a year 
for each communicant. Comparing the earning power 
of the Indian unskilled laborer with that of the West- 
erner, this is a very good proportion. 

The contributions of the people are also increased by 
the adoption of methods that will appeal to them. They 
enjoy harvest festivals and they love to bring to God 
a portion of their harvest produce. Rice or flour col- 
lection is another popular way of enabling them to 
make a regular offering. First fruits, first egg, first-born 
of cattle, first month's salary or first days' wages all 
these have a fascination for the Indian mind. The poor 
Indian Christian has scarcely ever any ready cash at his 
disposal. His wages are often in kind; his offerings must 
be in kind too. Calves, lambs, sheep, cattle, hundreds 
of chickens, sacks of rice or other grain may all be seen 
among the thank offerings brought to the church on 
such festival occasions. It often is said by Indian Chris- 
tians that offerings must be requested for God, and not 
to pay the salary of the teacher or pastor. Neither in the 
Hindu or the Moslem system do priests receive a fixed 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 185 

salary from the people to whom they minister. Offerings 
are made to the deity in the temple; they may be utilized 
for any good purpose. For this reason in some churches 
the offerings are not collected, but are offered. Collec- 
tions must go ; offerings will remain. 

MOVEMENTS TOWARDS UNITY 

The divisions of Christendom are a source of weak- 
ness and inefficiency in the West; they are a crime and 
scandal in the non-Christian world. Union is a desirable 
ideal in the older churches; it is a matter of life and 
death in the younger churches in Africa and the East. 
It has been said that the resources in men and money 
at the disposal of the existing missionary agencies are 
abundantly adequate to evangelize the world. Yet they 
are actually woefully insufficient because of the wastage 
due to overlappings, competition and rivalries inevi- 
table in a divided Christendom. Moreover, the non- 
Christian is bewildered by Christian separations. Com- 
pared with these, the sects within Hinduism, Islam, and 
Sikhism appear to him as nothing. A leader of the de- 
pressed classes, speaking of the movement among his 
people away from Hinduism, said: "When Christianity 
is suggested as a possible religion they point out that 
they are united in Hinduism, but will be divided in 
Christianity; and I have no answer to give!" Have 
Christians any answer to give ? 

Indian Christians are one in their allegiance to the 



186 MOVING MILLIONS 

Savior, one in national and political aspirations, one in 
their responsibility for bringing their countrymen to 
Christ. They are not one in their witness to truth, not 
one in public worship, not one in baptism, not one in 
ministry, and therefore not one in participation of the 
holy communion the sacrament of unity. Moreover, 
there is the pathetic fact that they are not responsible 
for these divisions. They are in different ecclesiastical 
groups not because of theology but because of geog- 
raphy. An Indian Christian is what he is because a par- 
ticular Western church happened to evangelize that 
particular tract of country where he or his parents hap- 
pened to live, and so he was baptized into the fellow- 
ship of that particular church. Later of course he was 
inoculated with the virus of denominationalism and was 
taught to believe that his was the only true form of the 
holy catholic church and that all other churches were 
in error! On the whole, however, these divisions do not 
appeal to the Indian Christians. Faced with the titanic 
task of the winning of India for Christ in the words 
lof the Tranquebar manifesto they find themselves 
rendered weak and relatively impotent by these unhappy 
divisions, divisions for which they were not responsible 
and which were imposed upon them from without, 
divisions which they did not create and which they do 
not desire to perpetuate. 

This is a problem that the Indian churches cannot 
solve without the cooperation of the mother churches. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 187 

These younger churches are dependent to such a large 
degree upon the older churches for leadership, guidance 
and financial assistance that they simply cannot act with- 
out the good will and cooperation of the latter. The 
sin, therefore, of perpetuating a divided state of Chris- 
tendom throughout the mission field lies certainly upon 
the heads of the older churches. 

Attempts have been made from time to time to heal 
these divisions both in the East and West. We have only 
to recall as instances the inauguration of the United 
Church of Canada, the Methodist Church of Great 
Britain, and the Church of Scotland, and the establish- 
ment of intercommunion between the National Church 
of Sweden and the Anglican communion. These unions 
have had their wholesome repercussions in the mission 
field. 

The South India United Church, already referred to, 
is one such accomplished union. A still bolder attempt 
is being made in South India to bring together into one 
united church this South India United Church, the ( Wes- 
leyan) Methodist church, and the Anglican church in 
India. A manifesto was issued by Indian ministers from 
Tranquebar in March, 1919. Representatives officially 
appointed by the three churches have worked together 
for the past eighteen years and have formulated a scheme 
of union, 1 which is being examined and considered by 

1 Proposed Scheme of Union, published by Christian Literature Society, 
Madras, India. 



188 MOVING MILLIONS 

the churches concerned. This is the first instance of a 
serious attempt to bring into one organic union churches 
following Episcopal and non-Episcopal traditions. If 
consummated, it will afford a model for negotiations for 
similar union all over the world. Its importance there- 
fore cannot be overestimated. 

FELLOWSHIP AND COOPERATION 
While union of the churches is the ideal, and ought to 
be the goal of our efforts and prayers, much can be done 
meanwhile to minimize the evils of division, through the 
fellowship and cooperation made possible by the Na- 
tional Christian Council, and its auxiliaries the Provin- 
cial Councils, established in the provinces. This Council is 
the result of the statesmanship and organizing ability 
of Dr. John R. Mott, to whom modern missions owe the 
initiation of the International Missionary Council and 
the national councils of various lands, which were an 
outcome of the first World Missionary Conference held 
at Edinburgh in 1910. The objects of the National Chris- 
tian Council are "to stimulate thinking and investigation 
on missionary questions; to enlist in the solution of these 
questions the best knowledge and experience to be found 
in India and to make the results available for all churches 
and missions in India; to help to coordinate the activities 
of the Provincial Councils; and through common con- 
sultation to help to form Christian public opinion and 
bring it to bear on the moral and social problems of the 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 189 

day." It is acknowledged by all that these functions are 
being efficiently performed by the Council to the great 
gain of the Christian enterprise throughout India. The 
Fraser Commission on Village Education, the Mass 
Movement Survey under the leadership of Bishop Pick- 
ett, the Lindsay Commission on Christian Colleges, the 
Five- Year Forward Movement in Evangelism, the Mis- 
sion of Fellowship to Great Britain these are some of 
the outstanding tasks initiated and carried out under its 
auspices. 

SPIRITUAL LIFE AND WITNESS-BEARING 

Another ever present problem is the maintenance and 
deepening of the spiritual life of the Christians. The 
problem becomes vital in areas where the Christian com- 
munity is of the second and succeeding generations. The 
converts of the first generation usually exhibit all the 
glow and warmth of their new experience. The sacrifices 
they made for the sake of Christ brought with them a 
rich reward of fellowship with God and joy in his serv- 
ice. The children of the second and third generation, 
however, while heirs to Christian nurture and upbring- 
ing, cannot be said to inherit Christian experience. 

The Indian religious instinct is a great asset to the 
Christians and they are all generally known to be re- 
ligious as far as outward conformity goes. Their attend- 
ance at public worship, their observance of the sacra- 
ments, and their adherence to the Christian pattern of 



190 MOVING MILLIONS 

life are most praiseworthy. But to bring Christian life 
to its full fruitage there is required careful training and 
cultivation in such matters as personal faith in the living 
God through Jesus Christ, trust and reliance upon him 
through all the changing vicissitudes of life, fellowship 
of the Holy Spirit maintained by study of Holy Scrip- 
ture and private prayer, and exhibition of the Christ- 
life in business, in the home, in all social relationships, 
in marriage affiliations, in public and civic life. How can 
this be done ? How far has this task been attempted or ac- 
complished ? 

These are not the exclusive problems of the mission 
field; equally do they affect the churches in the West. 
They will not solve themselves while we ignore them; 
they require vigilant study and careful planning by a 
sanctified ministry. For a church surrounded by the dead- 
ening atmosphere of non-Christian faiths, the question 
of keeping up the Christian ideals of faith and conduct 
are vital. . 

In securing this result a Christian home is an indis- 
pensable prerequisite. A home where the highest stand- 
ards of Christian conduct are expected from every mem- 
ber of the family, where family worship is the natural 
climax of an all-day Christian life, where the Lord's day 
is honored and sanctified for renewal of body and spirit, 
where the child learns the elementary facts of the Chris- 
tian religion from his mother's lips such a home cannot 
but transmit religion from one generation to another. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 191 

Organizations like the Mothers' Union are invaluable 
in keeping these ideals ever before Christian mothers. 

Religious education is another factor. It is the opinion 
of the writer that in the field of Christian education there 
is opportunity for a large number of consecrated men 
and women missionaries to mold the lives of the younger 
generation and inspire them to the service of their church 
and people. 

A third factor is adult education. It is not sufficient 
to aim at the education of the young, for a large per- 
centage of adult Christians are illiterate. With growth 
in literacy of children and adults will come the demand 
for new books, and if the Christian agencies do not 
provide these, the literacy attained will pass away, to 
the great loss of the individual and the church. 

A fourth factor in keeping alive the flame of religion 
in the second and later generations of Christians is keep- 
ing the duty of witness-bearing constantly before them. 
Christian life will never thrive where witness-bearing 
and service for others are neglected. Whatever Chris- 
tianity is, it is not a selfish religion. It was founded by 
one who saved others, and himself he could not save. 
There is no Christian life which does not include in it 
the element of saving others. The temptation to seek 
one's own salvation and to neglect that of others is 
particularly subtle to the Indian. His ancestral religion 
taught him to concentrate all his energies on attaining 
mukti, or freedom. If from the very outset Christians 



192 MOVING MILLIONS 

could be taught the duty of saving others as an in- 
separable part of the Christian duty, they would escape 
the stagnation and deadness that is often complained of 
in the second and later generation Christians. 

Churches are alive to this situation. The National 
Christian Council has taken certain steps to insure that 
the call to evangelism will be given to every Christian. 
The Forward Movement in Evangelism launched in the 
year 1935 has placed before all the churches a definite 
five-year plan. A Week of Witness is also being widely 
observed. In one church in the Telugu area 28,000 Chris- 
tians took part in giving their testimony to their non- 
Christian neighbors, selling over 30,000 gospel portions. 
The result of this mass witnessing was that 8,000 were 
reported as desiring to be instructed for baptism! But 
very often this cannot be done until the support of teach- 
ers to give instruction can be found; this averages 
seventy-five dollars a year. 

MISSIONARY WORK OF THE INDIAN CHURCH 

Mention must also be made of the organized mission- 
ary effort of the Indian church in different parts of the 
country. Several churches in South India have small 
home missionary societies of their own, which employ 
evangelists in their own or neighboring areas. The 
churches in the American Madura Mission area, and of 
the Jaffna area, and the Telugu Baptist Convention are 
supporting such activities. 




THE RIGHT REVEREND V. S. AZARIAH, D.D. 



192 MOVING MILLIONS 

could be taught the duty of saving others as an in- 
separable part of the Christian duty, they would escape 
the stagnation and deadness that is often complained of 
in the second and later generation Christians. 

Churches are alive to this situation. The National 
Christian Council has taken certain steps to insure that 
the call to evangelism will be given to every Christian. 
The Forward Movement in Evangelism launched in the 
year 1935 has placed before all the churches a definite 
five-year plan. A Week of Witness is also being widely 
observed. In one church in the Telugu area 28,000 Chris- 
tians took part in giving their testimony to their non- 
Christian neighbors, selling over 30,000 gospel portions. 
The result of this mass witnessing was that 8,000 were 
reported as desiring to be instructed for baptism! But 
very often this cannot be done until the support of teach- 
ers to give instruction can be found; this averages 
seventy-five dollars a year. 

MISSIONARY WORK OF THE INDIAN CHURCH 

Mention must also be made of the organized mission- 
ary effort of the Indian church in different parts of the 
country. Several churches in South India have small 
home missionary societies of their own, which employ 
evangelists in their own or neighboring areas. The 
churches in the American Madura Mission area, and of 
the Jaffna area, and the Telugu Baptist Convention are 
supporting such activities. 




V 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 193 

The Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly, organ- 
ized in 1903 by the Anglican church in the Diocese of 
Tinnevelly, now supports three Indian missionaries in 
Dornakal at a distance of over eight hundred miles from 
the home base. Besides supporting the three Tamil men, 
it is carrying on its budget a staff of fifty-six Telugu 
teachers, two Telugu clergymen, and has gathered a 
Christian community of over twelve thousand persons. 
The income of the society in the year 1936 was $8,500. 

The National Missionary Society of India was or- 
ganized in 1906 by representatives of Indian churches 
from all parts of India. It aims at uniting all Christian 
communions in all the provinces into one organization 
for the evangelization of India though the fields for 
work are assigned to churches fully respecting ecclesias- 
tical allegiances. The society, like the one in Tinnevelly, 
stands for the three fold principle: Indian men, Indian 
money, and Indian management. This society carries on 
work in nine provinces. The total income of the society 
in 1934 was $31,200, which supports 160 workers shep- 
herding altogether about 10,000 converts. 

The total gain to the Christian enterprise in India 
through all these and other indigenous agencies may not 
appear to be very large in volume. They are, however, 
so many evidences that the Indian churches are realizing 
their responsibility for the evangelization of their coun- 
try and are contributing their little share to the Chris- 
tian movement, not only by preaching and teaching but 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 193 

The Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly, organ- 
ized in 1903 by the Anglican church in the Diocese of 
Tinnevelly, now supports three Indian missionaries in 
Dornakal at a distance of over eight hundred miles from 
the home base. Besides supporting the three Tamil men, 
it is carrying on its budget a staff of fifty-six Telugu 
teachers, two Telugu clergymen, and has gathered a 
Christian community of over twelve thousand persons. 
The income of the society in the year 1936 was $8,500. 

The National Missionary Society of India was or- 
ganized in 1906 by representatives of Indian churches 
from all parts of India. It aims at uniting all Christian 
communions in all the provinces into one organization 
for the evangelization of India though the fields for 
work are assigned to churches fully respecting ecclesias- 
tical allegiances. The society, like the one in Tinnevelly, 
stands for the three fold principle: Indian men, Indian 
money, and Indian management. This society carries on 
work in nine provinces. The total income of the society 
in 1934 was $31,200, which supports 160 workers shep- 
herding altogether about 10,000 converts. 

The total gain to the Christian enterprise in India 
through all these and other indigenous agencies may not 
appear to be very large in volume. They are, however, 
so many evidences that the Indian churches are realizing 
their responsibility for the evangelization of their coun- 
try and are contributing their little share to the Chris- 
tian movement, not only by preaching and teaching but 



194 MOVING MILLIONS 

largely by example. I have in my diocese 210,000 Chris- 
tians, the great majority of these being drawn from out- 
castes. But there are about 35,000 converts from the high 
castes and middle-class communities, and these have all 
come in during the last six or seven years. When you ask 
the reason why they have become Christians they say: 
"We have seen the change that has come over the lives 
of the outcastes and we want to have this religion too." 

We have endeavored in this chapter to present a pic- 
ture of the Indian church as it is today in its most hope- 
ful features and activities. On the purity, sacrifice and 
devotion of this church depends ultimately the Chris- 
tianization of India. To equip it for this task, to educate 
and train its youth, to inspire it to fulfill its high calling 
is a service that the churches in America can .render at 
this time. 

The church in India beckons to its partners in Europe 
and America and cries: 

Come over and help us. Help us to meet the oppor- 
tunity that is open to us at the present time to present 
the gospel to the three hundred and fifty-two millions 
of our countrymen. Help us to instruct, baptize and 
organize those who are coming everywhere into the 
life of fellowship of the Christian church. 

Help us to teach the young, to remove adult illiteracy, 
and to provide vernacular literature for those who are 
emerging from darkness into light. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN INDIA 195 

Help us to train teachers, to provide an Indian ministry 
and to inspire our churches for their evangelistic task. 

Help us to come into closer fellowship and unity that 
we may all be one that the world may believe in the 
divine mission of Jesus Christ. 

Help us by your prayers that India may become 
Christ's and may bring her glory and riches into the City 
of God. 

Then shall be fulfilled the vision of the seer: The king- 
doms of this world are become the kingdoms of our 
Lord and. of his Christ; and HE SHALL REIGN FOREVER 

AND EVER. 



CHAPTER VII 

FACING THE FUTURE TASK 

By E. STANLEY JONES 

I. THE CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO INDIA 

THE Christian approach to India was never more 
promising and never more perplexing; we have 
never had more opportunity and never more 
opposition. 

With the break-up of the older forms of faith, with 
the inward decay of ancient beliefs, with perplexity 
and spiritual hunger that comes from spiritual insecurity 
and uncertainty, with the strain that has come through 
the going to pieces of the social order upon which men 
have leaned, with the outcastes declaring they are leav- 
ing their old customs and faith, the opportunity for 
Christian missions was never so great as in India at the 
present time. The whole situation cries to high heaven 
for some sure word from God, for some unity-giving 
conception, for some dynamic that will lift men out of 
themselves and their sins and cynicism and give them 
faith and courage and hope. 

Said a Hindu Nationalist to us as he was about to 
leave our Ashram after spending several weeks in our 
fellowship, "I go away without either faith or hope, but 

196 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 197 

I have found love here and that is something to hold to." 
Amid the wreck of things he was grateful for anything 
to which he could cling. After staying with us at a later 
period he said as he went away, "I do not believe that 
Jesus is the Truth or the Life, but I do think that he is 
the Way, and that is something to begin on." In the con- 
fusion and yet in the utter sincerity of that Hindu Na- 
tionalist mind you find an epitome of the situation as it 
confronts us in the mind of the modern man of the East. 
You can see what that means for Christian opportunity. 
It is simply overwhelming. When you have something 
experimental, satisfying and saving in the midst of a 
situation of that kind, the opportunity is too great for 
words. Add to this the fact that the outcastes are feeling 
their way into a completer life, and doing so on a very 
wide scale, in fact on a scale of millions, and you have 
the "open door" for which Christian missions has 
prayed. Open door ? It's off the hinges ! 

But at this very moment there has never been such a 
deep opposition to Christian missions as now. The 
Nationalist Hindu mentioned above said to me, "The 
whole of the National Congress movement is opposed 
to Christian missions." This is the more interesting in 
view of the fact that the Christian movement a few years 
ago seemed to have more in common with the National 
Congress movement than any other body. There was an 
inherent sense of inward understanding. Gandhi's ideas 
of non-violent non-cooperation seemed to fit the Chris- 



198 MOVING MILLIONS 

tian ethic and outlook and there was much inward kin- 
ship. One of the leaders of the movement said to me, 
"It is you Christians who can understand our movement 
better than any other for our ideas are inherently akin." 
The cross seemed so vital in those days. Men went to jail 
carrying New Testaments in their scant belongings, for 
the New Testament spoke directly to their hearts 
through their own movement. Gandhi and Christ had a 
very close kinship in the mind of India in those days. 
Then why has the Nationalist mind hardened against 
Christian missions? That it has hardened there is no 
doubt. Mr. Gandhi and the Nationalist press go out of 
their way to find fault. I am not sure that this hardening 
is against Christ as a person. He still grips the thinking 
and the acting of many, perhaps of an increasing num- 
ber even though they are outside of the Christian 
church. But that there is a hardening against the Chris- 
tian movement as such there is no doubt. 

In looking for the reasons one need not dwell on the 
fact that Christ has come to the East wrapped in the 
habiliments of the West. He came handicapped from 
the start. The West dominated the East. How can you 
take a religion from the hands of your conquerors? 
They may conquer your bodies, but will you allow them 
to conquer your souls? In the area of religion there 
could be the assertion of a soul-independence. The East 
stiffened its inner being and held the sanctuary. "We 
cannot give up our faith in our religion, it's the only 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 199 

thing that we have left," said a Hindu youth to me. 
That handicap of being bound up with the conquering 
West has been and is still a real one, and will not be 
transcended till the East shakes off Western domina- 
tion and stands free to choose her own faith within any 
inward inhibitions about the channel through which it 
comes. A free East will be free to choose. 

But in addition to the general handicap of being 
brought by a conquering people, there is a local handi- 
cap to the Christian movement which has arisen in India 
through the coming in of the Reform Scheme in these 
recent years. The Reform Scheme which has just begun 
operation gives to India provincial self-government. 
The allotment of seats in the legislature and the filling 
of offices are on the basis of communal representation, 
that is, each religious community in India is given its 
share in the loaves and fishes of office according to the 
number of adherents. The assignment was made by the 
British government since these various communities 
could not come to an agreement. Religion was made the 
basis of representation. 

All these provisions tighten up the whole situa- 
tion between the communities. Numbers count. The fu- 
ture of the country will be determined by the community 
which can maintain and possibly add to its numbers. 
Conversion is the method of adding to the faith. Con- 
version then from one faith to another ^becomes at once 
something of national significance. It is no longer a 



200 MOVING MILLIONS 

religious question, it is now a political and cultural 
question. If the Moslems can convert in sufficiently large 
numbers, then they control India culturally and politi- 
cally. The Hindus must maintain their numbers, there 
must be no falling away to any faith, in fact they must 
Hinduize the aboriginal tribes which have not been 
absorbed into the Hindu fold, and they must open the 
Hindu temples and its privileges to the outcastes, and 
above all they must stop conversion both to Islam and 
to Christianity, and they must try to reconvert those who 
have gone over to these other faiths. The Hindu is fight- 
ing for his cultural and political life. Christian missions 
have been caught in this jam of political influences. 

Obviously, the thing for Christian missions to do was 
to lift the whole Christian movement out of this. It 
could do it by repudiating communalism, by saying that 
it would not stand politically for the Christian com- 
munity but for the country. It could do this with very 
good conscience by pointing to China where there is no 
Christian community in addition to the Christian church. 
The Christians are Nationalists and are standing for 
the country and not merely for the Christian group. 
But in India there is a very definite Christian community 
in addition to the Christian church and the Christians 
were asked to take their part in the whole communal 
scheme of reforms. This was deadly in two ways. First, 
their influence and education really made them deserve 
more in the way of office and opportunity than their 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 201 

numbers would imply. Second, to get into that scheme 
of communalism cut straight across the Christianization 
of India. It would block it. Many Christian leaders 
pleaded that they renounce communalism, but the pres- 
sure was too great both from within the Christian com- 
munity and from the framers of the scheme itself. The 
Christians have taken communal representation, at least 
for the time being. Some of us are still hoping that they 
may renounce it, lose their life in the country and find it 
again in moral and spiritual influence. 

I have gone to the leaders of the country and have 
said to them this: A communalism has been built up 
around the Christian church, part of the fault is ours 
and part of it is yours. We segregated converts in the be- 
ginning, but you also helped in the formation of this 
community by your refusal to allow people to stay in 
their homes when they began to follow Christ. You 
threw them out and they were bound to form themselves 
into a separate communalism. If you are willing to allow 
people to stay in their homes and be frank, open Chris- 
tians, members of a moral and spiritual organization, 
the Christian church, they need not change their dress, 
their names, their diet, and they may stand in the stream 
of India's culture and life. If you are willing to do this, 
then as far as we are concerned, we are willing to see 
the Christian community as a separate political entity 
fade out, leaving the Christian church as a moral and 
spiritual organization contributing its power to India's 
uplift and redemption. 



202 MOVING MILLIONS 

Every single national leader to whom I have pre- 
sented this matter has cordially agreed, jumped at it in 
fact. It has lifted the whole matter of conversion into 
a new plane; it has shed light on the vexed matter of 
conversion being mixed with political considerations. 
Mr. Gandhi's reply to my proposal was interesting, "If 
my son should become a Christian on the basis which 
you propose, namely that there should be no change 
of dress or of names and one could stand in the stream 
of India's life and culture and interpret his new faith, 
and if in his case there should be no liquor or tobacco 
involved, I should keep him in my home without penalty 
or disability." When I suggested to him that this was 
personal and asked him if he recommend this to India, 
he replied, "I would. And moreover if you will take this 
attitude, then most of the objections to Christianity 
would fade out of the mind of India." 

This was important not only in regard to the immedi- 
ate communal issue, but also in regard to the whole 
matter of conversion. Mr. Gandhi had taken an attitude 
of refusing to allow that conversion was legitimate un- 
der any circumstances; one should stay in his own faith. 
But in this statement he had conceded that it might take 
place. I think this was his inmost feeling in regard to 
the matter, but some months later he issued a statement 
which cancelled all that he had said to me. He found 
himself bound up with political considerations that 
made him back from that position, for it might give rise 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 203 

to the idea that conversion was now considered legiti- 
mate by him legitimate in general, when he had only 
considered it legitimate under those particular circum- 
stances. Apart from Mr. Gandhi there has been an eager 
acceptance of this position on the part of the national 
leaders whom I have consulted. It is the only position 
for us and for them to take. It saves us from further 
dividing the country with another communalism, it 
saves the Hindu from the loss of cultural and political 
power through conversion, and it saves religion from 
being the football of politics. But above all, it saves the 
Christian movement from being stultified at the central 
point, namely, the right to give its message and to win 
to its allegiance those who would take it. 

Obviously the approach to the East must be simplified 
and clarified. We must cut away every extraneous issue 
and bring the matter down to where the issues are clear. 
To do this we must strip away from Christ and his mes- 
sage the things which have been built up around him. He 
must be presented to the East without complications. He 
must be the disentangled Christ. 

At the close of an address the Hindu chairman said 
to the audience, "There have been certain stages in the 
approach of Christ to the soul of India. First he came to 
us and knocked at our doors in company with a trader. 
We looked out and we said within ourselves, We like 
you but we do not like your company. So we closed the 
door. Again he came, this time with a soldier on the one 
side and a diplomat on the other. Again we said within 



204 MOVING MILLIONS 

ourselves, We like you, but we do not like your com- 
pany. And again we closed the door. Now he comes 
presented tonight standing in his right, entering into 
our lowly doors, the friend of the sick and the sinful; 
he is apart from everything but his own love and com- 
passion. We say to this Christ, Enter, our hearts are 
yours." There is no doubt that this is the attitude of 
many. 

While we must strip from Christ all that is extraneous 
we must also strip from our own hearts everything that 
hinders the presentation of that Christ. We cannot help 
but feel that we have a superior message, but if that 
sense of the superior creeps into us and makes us feel 
that we are superior, then we are unfitted to become the 
heralds of this message. 

We must bring this message as a love offering to the 
people to whom we go. Infinite respect must be in our 
hearts for the people whom we approach. Their cus- 
toms may be different, their habits may be obnoxious to 
us, but we must cultivate the sense of appreciation that 
would look past all this to the worth-whileness of the 
people and to the possibilities inherent in everyone. We 
must be tender and gentle in regard to any custom they 
may have. There is probably a reason for that custom. 
It may be that in the end it will have to go, but it may 
have to stay for it is rooted in a vital human need. We 
must believe that Christ came not to destroy, but to 
complete and to fulfill. We will therefore not be the 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 205 

enemies of the culture of any people, but be eager to 
preserve what is fine and noble in any race. We shall 
not try to make all alike, but out of the differences we 
shall make a richer harmony. Some Negro singers came 
to India and sang their wonderful spirituals in parts. A 
Hindu commenting on this said, "What a pity it was 
that they could not all sing the same tune." The Hindu 
sings in melody and the Negro in harmony and the 
Hindu wanted everyone to sing the same tune! How 
much richer we will be when there are differences and 
yet a central harmony amid these differences. 

But in our approach to the East we shall not come 
with tentative attitudes to add confusion to the confu- 
sion of the East. We will not come dogmatically, but 
with a deep experimental certainty. The East wants to 
know what we know, not what we doubt. In arranging 
for a series of meetings in a city in the East the commit- 
tee of arrangements wisely asked a non-Christian to be- 
come a member of the committee on arrangements. One 
of the Christian members suggested that they ask me to 
speak on some general subject, such as my travels, and 
then if the people were interested sufficiently and re- 
quested it, I should speak on religion. "No," said this 
non-Christian, "let him speak on some such subject as: 
'What I believe and why I believe it.' " This is the atti- 
tude of the seeking East. They want to know whether 
we have a faith and why we have it. 

Just now there came to me a youth, a graduate of a 



206 MOVING MILLIONS 

great Moslem university, who was returning from a pil- 
grimage to Mecca. When I asked him where all this 
left him he replied, "Confused, and my faith is getting 
dimmer." The Christian must come with an experi- 
mental certainty that rings clear and true amid the 
surrounding uncertainty. A Nationalist Hindu said, 
"I came to hear you for you seemed so cocksure 
about everything and I was sure of nothing." I took 
to heart the word "cocksure," for I did not want to 
wear that word as a label. But inwardly I knew he was 
wrong, for any certainty I had gained came through the 
long hard way of experimentation and there were scars 
on my faith. Christian missions must come with an ex- 
perimental certainty amid a world of vast uncertainties. 
Our approach must be sure. 

If our approach is to be effective it must not merely 
be verbal; it must be vital. We must let the people see 
what we mean by the message. If we preach the king- 
dom of God then the people must see that kingdom in 
demonstration. We must set up demonstration centers 
of the kingdom our homes, our schools, our ashrams, 
our institutions must be cells of the kingdom. People 
must see in operation the new principles and power in 
the new society. It was said that the ancient world of 
Greece and Rome was not won to the Christian faith 
through the preaching of the message so much as by the 
sight of the new society. Amid a world of decay this new 
society, the fellowship, had vitality and reality. It gave 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 207 

men courage and hope that there was the possibility of a 
renewal of the individual and of society on a large scale. 

This brings me to the observation that the approach 
to the East must now be in a perspective that is larger 
than we have been used to. While the faith of the in- 
dividual has been decaying in the East, the social and 
economic institutions have also been decaying. The 
pulsating East is wanting a method of reconstruction. 
Think of the demand that is laid on Christian missions 
by the very rise of a man like Jawaharlal Nehru with his 
passion for reconstruction. He is a left-wing socialist, 
sincere and honest and able. Talk to him about the 
necessity of having a personal faith and he is interested 
but not satisfied. He wants something that will go be- 
yond that. Into that situation we must come with a mes- 
sage not less than the kingdom of God on earth. We 
must provide something that will remake the individual 
and the collective will, something so universal that it 
will take in the sum total of human relationships, and 
something so intimate that it will take in our own per- 
sonal need. The kingdom of God gives just that. It is 
therefore the message that is so desperately needed at 
the present time in the East. Men will want us to com- 
promise it .and tone it down. We cannot. 

A Hindu came to me and said, "We must get this 
message of the kingdom of God down to the very vil- 
lages. It is the word that India is waiting for. But in 
order to do that call it '&tma Rajya,' the kingdom of 



208 MOVING MILLIONS 

Rama. Then people will take it." We do want to accom- 
modate to every national aspiration and demand we can. 
But we cannot compromise. It is the kingdom of God, 
and Rama and God cannot be equated. And it is the 
kingdom of God as interpreted by Jesus and illustrated 
and embodied in himself. In him the kingdom of Gpd 
meets the kingdom of this world and goes to the cross 
at that meeting place. There this higher kingdom takes 
on itself all the sin and sorrow and wrongness of the 
lower kingdom to lift and save it. We must preach this 
kingdom as a head-on and sweeping answer to the 
world's need and we must do it without compromise, 
for there is nothing else that can save the world except 
just this. 

Men will say they have the same things in their own 
sacred books. The day I landed in India thirty years ago 
I traveled to Lucknow from Bombay with a Moslem and 
I began my missionary work at once I read him the 
Sermon on the Mount. When I was through and looked 
up to see the effect it had on him his reply was, "We have 
the same thing in the Koran." The defense was not that 
it was not true, but that it was not new. But the kingdom 
of God as interpreted by Jesus is new. While it gathers 
up everything that is fine in the old it goes beyond this 
fulfillment and presents something utterly undreamed of 
the God who would save us even if it means a cross to 
him. We must preach this message then without the stam- 
mering of the tongue or the hesitation of the heart. 




DR. E. STANLEY JONES WITH TWO NATIONALIST LEADERS 
WHO ARE WEARING THE GANDHI CAP 



208 MOVING MILLIONS 

Rama. Then people will take it." We do want to accom- 
modate to every national aspiration and demand we can. 
But we cannot compromise. It is the kingdom of God, 
and Rama and God cannot be equated. And it is the 
kingdom. of God as interpreted by Jesus and illustrated 
and embodied in himself. In him the kingdom of God 
meets the kingdom of this world and goes to the cross 
at that meeting place. There this higher kingdom takes 
on itself all the sin and sorrow and wrongness of the 
lower kingdom to lift and save it. We must preach this 
kingdom as a head-on and sweeping answer to the 
world's need and we must do it without compromise, 
for there is nothing else that can save the world except 
just this. 

Men will say they have the same things iri their own 
sacred books. The day I landed in India thirty years ago 
I traveled to Lucknow from Bombay with a Moslem and 
I began my missionary work at once I read him the 
Sermon on the Mount. When I was through and looked 
up to see the effect it had on him his reply was, "We have 
the same thing in the Koran." The defense was not that 
it was not true, but that it was not new. But the kingdom 
of God as interpreted by Jesus is new. While it gathers 
up everything that is fine in the old it goes beyond this 
fulfillment and presents something utterly undreamed of 
the God who would save us even if it means a cross to 
him. We must preach this message then without the stam- 
mering of the tongue or the hesitation of the heart. 




DR. E. STANLEY JONES WITH TWO NATIONALIST LEADERS 
WHO ARE WEARING THE GANDHI CAP 




From "Heritage of Beauty" 

ALL SAINTS' MEMORIAL CHURCH, PESHAWAR 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 209 

II. THE MISSIONARY APPROACH TO THE WEST 
There used to be a time when we pointed to the map 
and said that mission fields are here, they are there, and 
they were always not the country in which we as Chris- 
tians lived. The "heathen" sections were shaded in 
black. We were white. That smug assumption has re- 
ceived a very severe blow. We know now that paganism 
is not something on the map it is something in our 
hearts and that may be in both East and West. "The 
field is the world" and "the world" is not merely this 
geographical world, but the world of human relation- 
ships, the world of economic contacts, the world of the 
inner life. The field is all of life. 

The missionary then has a double task in regard to 
the home base he must help convert the whole of life 
there in general, and specifically he must help convert 
the church itself to the missionary idea and passion. For 
the church is not yet committed to it; individuals are, 
but the church as a church is hesitant and half-hearted 
in its missionary conception and passion. What then 
should be our approach to the church at the home base ? 
1. We do not ask you to support this movement 
through pity. That was in large measure the appeal 
when I came to the mission field thirty years ago. It was 
not good enough. True, there is enough to break your 
heart in human conditions in non-Christian lands, but 
these nations now are awake and sensitive and any ele- 




From, "Heritage of Beauty" 
ALL SAINTS' MEMORIAL CHURCH, PESHAWAR 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 209 

II. THE MISSIONARY APPROACH TO THE WEST 

There used to be a time when we pointed to the map 
and said that mission fields are here, they are there, and 
they were always not the country in which we as Chris- 
tians lived. The "heathen" sections were shaded in 
black. We were white. That smug assumption has re- 
ceived a very severe blow. We know now that paganism 
is not something on the map it is something in our 
hearts and that may be in both East and West. "The 
field is the world" and "the world" is not merely this 
geographical world, but the world of human relation- 
ships, the world of economic contacts, the world of the 
inner life. The field is all of life. 

The missionary then has a double task in regard to 
the home base he must help convert the whole of life 
there in general, and specifically he must help convert 
the church itself to the missionary idea and passion. For 
the church is not yet committed to it; individuals are, 
but the church as a church is hesitant and half-hearted 
in its missionary conception and passion. What then 
should be our approach to the church at the home base ? 

1. We do not ask you to support this movement 
through pity. That was in large measure the appeal 
when I came to the mission field thirty years ago. It was 
not good enough. True, there is enough to break your 
heart in human conditions in non-Christian lands, but 
these nations now are awake and sensitive and any ele- 



210 MOVING MILLIONS 

ment of pity will be resented at once. Besides, this atti- 
tude creates in us superior attitudes as a "brother bounti- 
ful" to inferior peoples. This is deadly to the missionary 
heart. I do not mean that we should go at this in a 
"hard-boiled" manner, either on the part of the mission- 
ary or those who sustain the movement at the home 
base. There must be deep compassion underlying the 
movement. But compassion and pity are different. Com- 
passion suffers with another, its root meaning is just 
that, but pity means that you bend over people in 
order to do them good. "Mrs. Quality was a very grand 
lady who liked to be kind to people not so grand as she 
was, only they had to behave as if they realized that they 
were not so grand as she was, or it did not do at all." 
Missions must purge itself from all of that spirit to be 
effective in this growingly sensitive age. I went to India 
through pity, I stay through respect. I am proud to serve 
a people with the culture and inheritance of my people 
of India. 

2. We think it is a fallacy to wait till you have solved 
all the problems of the home base before you can sup- 
port a missionary movement abroad. On that basis who 
would do individual work for individuals anywhere? 
For who feels that all his own problems are solved ? Not 
one of us! That we have hold of something very real 
and something very saving we gratefully acknowledge, 
but have we fully surrendered to it? Partially, yes. But 
the complete abandon? Nevertheless, we feel that we 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 211 

have a right to go to individuals with our message for 
we have hold of something supremely worth while. If 
we as individuals go to others with what we know to be 
a saving message although all our own spiritual prob- 
lems are not yet solved, then why should we not as a 
nation send to other nations although we are deeply 
conscious that we need the very gospel we are giving to 
others ? The test in the case of both the individual and 
the nation is whether we are sincerely acknowledging 
our own need and are trying to apply the message we 
give to others to those needs. The fact is that if we 
wait till all our problems are solved we shall never go 
at all, for when this set of problems has been solved we 
shall have a new set on our hands demanding solution. 
Life is a growth and our problems grow with that 
growth. If sending people to other lands meant the 
blinding of ourselves to our own needs, then the mis- 
sionary enterprise would not be legitimate. But the fact 
of the matter is that the sending of missionaries to other 
lands exposes our own needs. The missionaries returning 
report what other people are saying about us; it makes 
us search our hearts. Moreover, it is a very searching 
thing to our own message when we expose it to the 
conflict which presenting it to another people involves. 
It means that our own message is purified in the very 
presentation. Extraneous things have to be cut away and 
only the really relevant things remain. I am persuaded 
that Christian missions have done more to clarify Chris- 



212 MOVING MILLIONS 

tianity at home than perhaps any other single force. The 
reaction upon Christian theology and practice at the 
home base has been one of the most beneficial things 
that has happened. Without this cleansing reaction it is 
quite probable that our Christianity would have degen- 
erated. In saving others we have saved ourselves. 

3. We would remind the home base that a faith that 
cannot be exported cannot be kept. If this faith does not 
belong to every man it belongs to no man. There is no 
such thing as a local truth. Truth by its very nature is 
universal. Two and two make four around the world. 
But two and two make five that is local. Error by its 
nature is local. If therefore you take the attitude that 
your faith is good enough for you and the other man's 
is good enough for him, then what you mean is that 
neither one is universal and neither one is true. If there- 
fore you find that you cannot share this faith with every 
man everywhere, you will soon find that you cannot 
keep it. It won't meet your need. For the human heart 
is one. Scratch down beneath the surface of outer dif- 
ferences, differences which have come largely through 
the difference in the social heredity, and you will find 
just a common humanity. 

On a round world it is hard to tell where East ends 
and West begins. The fact is that our problems are no 
longer Eastern problems and Western problems they 
are becoming just human problems. I find that when I 
move from one country into another the same problems 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 213 

confront men everywhere and the same message is valid 
everywhere. That is the glory of the Christian faith 
there are no frontiers and there are no strange lands to it. 
A Moslem just interrupted me long enough to ask why it 
is that Moslems fear translating the Koran into languages 
other than the Arabic. Would it lose its power if they did 
so ? Such a question does not arise with us. There is an in- 
herent something in this message that is capable of going 
over into another language without loss of power and 
redemptive influence. Jesus Christ is the Son of man and 
as such he belongs to the sons of men. Should we try 
to confine him to our own land then we would have 
something other than Christ upon our hands. He would 
be localized, limited, untrue. 

4. When we lose the power of propagation we are 
then in the process of decay and death. Life depends 
upon power to propagate life. When we lose the moral 
and spiritual offensive from our faith it is the beginning 
of the end. When they are dimmed our faith begins to 
dim with them. Christian missions is the test of the 
vitality of our faith. 

5. This movement is not founded on a particular text 
of Scripture, although the Scripture is explicit about the 
universality of the Christian mission; but it is founded 
upon the very nature of the God revealed in Jesus 
Christ. The God whom we see in Jesus Christ loved the 
world, and so loved it that he gave his very heart, his 
own son. At the center of the Christian conception is the 



214 MOVING MILLIONS 

mission idea and passion. To get rid of missions you 
would have to cut out the heart of God. The pulse beat 
of missions is in the very center of the universe. When 
Jesus said, "I must go on to the next towns," he was 
simply expressing what was inherent in the soul of God. 
The drive of redemption is founded in the love of God. 
If God is love then it cannot be abstract love, it must be 
concrete, vital, redemptive and it must be universal, 
or it would not be love but snobbery. If the Christian is 
to be like God he cannot help but love in universal 
terms. The moment he tries to limit his love that love 
turns from love into racialism, the degeneration of love. 

6. It is a truism and yet it is well to remind ourselves 
that all of Christianity at the home base is founded 
on the efforts of foreign missionaries^ If we do not 
give ourselves to missions, then we must repudiate 
their gift to us. But if we did then we would have noth- 
ing left. For all we are we owe to Christian missions. 
There is not a liberty, an institution, a privilege, a sin- 
gle good thing in our civilization that is not blood- 
bought in a double sense, first by the blood of the Son of 
God and second by the blood of the missionaries who 
came and shared with our barbarous ancestors the 
message. 

7. A world choice is now being made. We are straight 
up against the fact that this generation or at the most 
the next generation will have to decide between com- 
munism, fascism or the kingdom of God. The world 



FACING THE FUTURE TASK 215 

mind is being made up and these are the alternatives be- 
fore us. We cannot stay where we are, for this old order 
is going to pieces under us. We need something to put 
under this toppling order. Which will it be: commu- 
nism, fascism or the kingdom of God ? The time of sift- 
ing has now come. We can no longer act as though we 
are neutral. We must be missionaries of something. If we 
stand where we are and do nothing then we are mis- 
sionaries of decadence and chaos. We stand for the old 
and the old is decaying and going to pieces. 

Do you want the world to go communist ? Sit down and 
think what that means, what it means to the thing that 
you hold dear your very faith. Do you want that to 
go? Do you want your universe to be a godless uni- 
verse? Do you want the world to go fascist? That 
would not be godless, you say, for the fascists believe in 
religion. Do they believe in God? Hardly. Not when 
they make the state God. When the state is supreme, 
then where is the place for the supreme God ? 

Either one of these exacts too heavy a price for one's 
allegiance. We cannot take either one. And we cannot 
remain in the old. Then there is only one thing left: The 
kingdom! We do choose that. For it was Christ's choice 
and what he -chose is supremely worth while. We can- 
not go astray following him. He has been right on every 
single issue so far. And now we come straight up to the 
question of whether we shall take his kingdom as the 
way out of our individual and collective chaos. And that 



216 MOVING MILLIONS 

question must be settled on a world scale. There are no 
localisms in it. Fascism is not local. Hitler says that there 
can never be peace in the world until there is one gov- 
ernment, that one government of course, fascist! Is com- 
munism local ? They say they cannot rest until the world 
has gone communist. Then does the Christian remain 
in petty localisms when these universal 'movements are 
pressing upon the heart and mind of the world for ad- 
mittance ? He must be universal or out of the game. 

James Chalmers was killed and eateri by the savages 
of Papua. They found written in his Bible which his 
mother had given him these words opposite the story of 
Jesus standing on the shore, "Yes, Jesus stands on the 
shore of every country waiting for his missionaries." He 
does! But those shores now are not only 1 geographical, 
they are the frontiers where the great issues of life are 
being decided: the economic, the social, the moral and 
the spiritual. He stands on those shores waiting for his 
missionaries. Does the church turn back to its devotions 
and leave him standing on those shores alone ? Or do 
we spring to his side and say, We are with you in life 
and death! THE KINGDOM THE KINGDOM is our choice! 
We must do that and get everybody everywhere to do 
the same. In other words we must be missionary. 



STATISTICS 

CHRISTIAN MEDICAL WORK 
IN INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON 

Hospitals - 256 

Dispensaries 250 

Sanatoriums 10 

Leper Homes 38 

Medical Schools 3 

Number of Hospital Beds 12,000 

Number of Sanatorium Beds 755 

Doctors, Foreign 350 

Doctors, National 390 

Nurses, Foreign 300 

Nurses, National 900 

Student Nurses 1,800 

Operations, Major 44,000 

Obstretrics, Total 32,000 

In-Patients 285,000 

Out-Patients 2,600,000 

Total Current Expenses Rs. 6,000,000 

The Journal of the Christian Medical Association of India. Burma and Ceylon. 
May, 1937. 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA 

Institutions Students 

Elementary Schools 13,330 611,730 

Secondary Schools 302 67,229 

Colleges 31 11,162 

Theological Colleges and Training Schools. . . 25 556 

Bible Training Schools 74 2,855 

Teacher Training Schools 63 3,153 

217 



218 MOVING MILLIONS 

PERCENT OF LITERACY BY SEX AND RELIGION, 1931 

Religion All-India Male Female 

All Religions 9.5 15.6 2.9 

Hindu 8.4 14.4 2.1 

Sikh 9.1 13.8 2.9 

Muslim 6.4 10.7 1.5 

Christian 27.9 35.2 20.3 

Data from The Statesman's Year-Book, 1936, p. 129. 

POPULATION BY RELIGION, 1 INDIA AND BURMA 

1921 Census 1931 Census 

Hindu (Total) 216,734,586 * 239,195,140 

Moslem 68,735,233 77,677,545 

Buddhist 11,571,268 12,786,806 

Sikh 3,238,803 4,335,771 

Primitive Religions 9,774,611 8,280,347 

Christian 4,754,064 , 6,296,763 

Jain 1,178,596 1,252,105 

Zoroastrian 101,778 109,752 

Jews 21,778 24,141 

Unreturned 2,879,438 



Total 316,128,721 352,837,778 

1 Eeprinted from Directory of Christian Missions and Churches in India, Burma 
and Ceylon, 1936-1937, p. 36. 

CHRISTIANS INDIA AND BURMA ALL RACES 

AND SECTS 

1891 2,284,380 

1901 2,923,241 

1911 3,876,203 

1921 4,754,664 

1931.. 6,296,763 

1936 7,304,255 (Estimate) 

Directory of Christian Missions and Churches in India, Burma and Ceylon, 1936- 
1937. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General Description 

COME WITH ME To INDIA. Patricia Kendall. New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1931. $3.50. 

INDIA LOOKS TO HER FUTURE. Oscar M t Buck. New York, Friendship 
Press, 1930. 50f- paper 25tf. 

INDIA REVEALS HERSELF. Basil Mathews. New York, Oxford University 
Press, 1937.' $2.50. 

THE LAND AND LIFE OF INDIA. Margaret Read. London, Edinburgh House 
Press, 1934. 2/ . (Available from Missionary Education Movement. 
80*. ) 

THE LEGACY OF INDIA. G. T. Garratt, editor. New York, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1937. $4.00. 

MY INDIA. Lillian L. Ashby and Roger Whately. Boston, Little, Brown & 
Co., 1937. $3.00. 

RENASCENT INDIA: FROM RAM MOHAN ROY TO MOHANDAS GANDHI. 
H. C. H. Zacharias. New York, E. P. Button Co., 1933. $3.25. 

SPOTLIGHTS ON THE CULTURE OF INDIA. James Lowell Hypes. Wash- 
ington, D. C., Daylion Co., 1937. $3.00. 

A HISTORY OF MISSIONS IN INDIA. Julius Richter. New York, Fleming H. 
Revell Co., 1908. (Out of print, but available in libraries.) 

History and Politics 

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY; WITH MUSINGS ON RECENT 

EVENTS IN INDIA. Jawaharlal Nehru. London, John Lane, 1936. 15/ . 
CAMBRIDGE SHORTER HISTORY OF INDIA. 3 Parts in 1. New York, Mac- 

millan Co., 1934. $4.00. 

INDIAN GODS AND KINGS ; THE STORY OF A LIVING PAST. Emma Hawk- 
ridge. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 1935. $3.50. 
INDIA'S NEW CONSTITUTION. J. P. Eddy and F. H. Lawton. New York, 

The Macmillan Co., 1935. $2.10. 
MAHATMA GANDHI; His LIFE, WORK, AND INFLUENCE. J. R. Chitambar. 

Philadelphia, John C. Winston Co., 1933. $2.00. 
NATIONHOOD FOR INDIA. J. S. M. Meston. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale 

University Press, 1933. $1.50. 
OXFORD STUDENT'S HISTORY OF INDIA. 13th edition. Vincent A. Smith. 

New York, Oxford University Press, 1931. $1.35. 
POLITICAL INDIA, 1832-1932: A CO-OPERATIVE SURVEY OF A CENTURY. 

Sir John G. Gumming, editor. New York, Oxford University Press, 

1932. $1.50. 
RISE AND FULFILMENT OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. Edward Thompson and 

G. T. Garratt New York, Macmillan Co., 1934. $7.50. 

219 



220 MOVING MILLIONS 

Social and Economic Conditions 

BEHIND MUD WALLS. Charlotte V. Wiser and William H. Wiser. New 
York, Richard R. Smith, 1930. $1.50. (Available from Harper & 
Brothers.) 

CASTE AND RACE IN INDIA. G. S. Ghurye. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 
1932. $4.00. 

THE CHRISTIAN MISSION IN RURAL INDIA. Kenyon L. Butterfield. New 
York, International Missionary Council, 1930. 80#. 

THE GOSPEL AND THE PLOW. Sam Higginbottom. New York, Macmillan 
Co., 1921. $1.00. 

INDIA'S SOCIAL HERITAGE. L. S. S. O'Malley. New York, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1934. $2.00. 

THE KEY OF PROGRESS: A SURVEY OF THE STATUS AND CONDITIONS 
OF WOMEN IN INDIA. A. R. Caton, editor. New York, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1930.' $2.50. 

POVERTY AND POPULATION IN INDIA. D. G. Karve. New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1936. $1.50. 

UP FROM POVERTY IN RURAL INDIA. 3rd edition. D. Spencer Hatch. New 
York, Oxford University Press, 1936. $1.50. 

WITHOUT THE PALE: THE LIFE STORY OF AN OUTCASTS. Margaret Sin- 
clair Stevenson. New York, Oxford University Press, 1931. $1.25. 

Indian Religions and Philosophy 

INSIGHTS INTO MODERN HINDUISM. Hervey D. Griswold. New York, 
Henry Holt & Co., 1934. $2.00. 

THE LIVING RELIGIONS OF THE INDIAN PEOPLE. Nicol Macnicol. London, 
Student Christian Movement Press, 1934. 10/6. (Available from Mis- 
sionary Education Movement. $3.50.) 

MODERN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN INDIA. J. N. Farquhar. New York, 

The Macmillan Co., 1924. $2.50. 

' THE HERITAGE OF INDIA. Kenneth J. Saunders. New York, The Macmillan 
Co., 1932. $1.75. 

INDIAN THOUGHT AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. Albert Schweitzer. New York, 
Henry Holt & Co., 1936. $2.50. 

Educational Work 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN INDIA. Sir George Anderson and Henry White- 
head. New York, Macmillan Co., 1932. $1.50. 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN THE VILLAGES OF INDIA. Alice B. Van Doren. 
Calcutta, Association Press Rs/2. Available through International Mis- 
sionary Council, London. 

INDIAN NATIONALISM AND THE CHRISTIAN COLLEGES. Paul J. Braisted. 
New York, Association Press, 1935, $2.00. 

NEW SCHOOLS FOR YOUNG INDIA. William John McKee. Chapel Hill, 
North Carolina, University of North Carolina, 1930. $4.50. 

THE CHRISTIAN COLLEGE IN INDIA. Report of the Commission on Christian 
Higher Education in India. New York, Oxford University Press, 1931. 
$2.00. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 

Medical Work 

CAMEOS FROM PURULIA. L. Margaret Sharpe. London, Mission to Lepers, 
1936. (Available from American Mission to Lepers. 35#.) 

RATS, PLAGUE AND RELIGION. John Spencer Carmen. Philadelphia, Judson 
Press, 1936. $1.25. 

Christianity in India 

BUILDERS OF THE INDIAN CHURCH ; PRESENT PROBLEMS IN THE LIGHT OF 

THE PAST. Stephen Neill. London, Edinburgh House Press, 1934. 

2/ . (Available from Missionary Education Movement. 80<.) 
THE FRONTIER PEOPLES OF INDIA: A Missionary Survey. Alexander Mc- 

Leish. New York, World Dominion Press, 1931. $1.50. 
ALL IN THE DAY'S WORK. Godfrey E. Phillips. New York, Missionary 

Education Movement, 1929. Boards, 500; paper, 25tf. 
CHRISTIAN MASS MOVEMENTS IN INDIA. J. Waskom Pickett. New York, 

Abingdon Press, 1933. $2.00. 
HERITAGE OF BEAUTY; PICTORIAL STUDIES OF MODERN CHURCH ARCHI- 

TECTURE IN ASIA AND AFRICA. Daniel J. Fleming. New York, Friend- 

ship Press, 1937. $1.50. 
INDIA AND THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT. V. S. Azariah. Madras, Christian 

Literature Society of India, 1936. As. 8. 
AN INDIAN APPROACH TO INDIA. Milton Stauffer, editor. New York, 

Missionary Education Movement, 1927. Cloth, 50tf; paper, 25^. 
THE UNTOUCHABLES' QUESTS: The Depressed Classes of India and Chris- 

tianity. Godfrey Phillips. New York, Friendship Press, 1936. 

paper 



Biography 

CHILDREN OF THE LIGHT IN INDIA. Mrs. Arthur Parker. New York, Flem- 

ing H. Revell Co., 1930. $2.00. 
SADHU SUNDAR SINGH. Charles F. Andrews. New York, Harper & Brothers, 

1934. $1.00. 
SUSIE SORABJI, CHRISTIAN-PARSEE EDUCATIONALIST OF WESTERN INDIA. 

Cornelia Sorabji. New York, Oxford University Press, 1932. $1.50. 
MAHATMA GANDHI: His OWN STORY. C. F. Andrews, editor. New York, 

The Macmillan Co., 1930. $2.50. 
MAHATMA GANDHI AT WORK: His OWN STORY CONTINUED. C. F. An- 

drews, editor. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1931. $2.50. 
AN AMERICAN DOCTOR AT WORK IN INDIA. Sir William J. Wanless. New 

York, Fleming H. Revell Co., 1932. $1.50. 
MEN OF THE OUTPOSTS. Herbert Welch. New York, Abingdon Press, 1937. 

$2.00. (Isabella Thoburn, Francis Xavier.) 
SIR JAMES EWING. Robert E. Speer. New York, Fleming H. Revell Co., 

1928. $2.75. 



222 MOVING MILLIONS 

Magazine Articles 

International Review of Missions 

BETHLEHEM, A CHRISTIAN VILLAGE IN THE PUNJAB. Kamolini Sircar. 

April, 1936, p. 195-205. 
AN EXPERIMENT IN RESEARCH AT AN INDIAN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE. H. L. 

Puxley. April, 1936, p. 206-215. 

EVANGELISM AND VILLAGE CRAFTS. Frank Ryrie. July, 1936, p. 321-328. 
EVANGELISM IN INDIA. J. Z. Hodge. October, 1935, p. 495-505. 
THE FUTURE OF CHURCHES AND MISSIONS IN INDIA. H. Gulliford. July, 

1937, p. 353-358. 
THE KEY METHOD OF TEACHING ILLITERATES. Frank C. Laubach. April, 

1936, p. 235-249. 

A SURVEY OF THE YEAR 1937. William Paton and M. M. Underbill. 

January, 1938, p. . 
UPBUILDING THE CHURCH IN ASIA. George T. Scott. October, 1936, 

p. 526-535. 

Missionary Review of the World 
CHRISTIAN MASS MOVEMENTS IN INDIA. J. Waskom Pickett. April, 1936, 

p. 167-169. 
THE EMANCIPATOR OF INDIAN OUTCASTES. L. O. Hartman. April, 1936, 

p. 170-171. 
How EDUCATION HELPS INDIAN GIRLS. Charlotte C. Wyckoff. July, 1936, 

p. 353-355. 

A TRIP TO VELLORE. June, 1932, p. 367-368. 
.,WHAT CHRIST HAS DONE FOR UNTOUCHABLES. V. S. Azariah. March, 

1937, p. 131-132. 

WHAT INDIAN WOMANHOOD OWES TO CHRIST. Mrs. Mohini Das. Sep- 
tember, 1936, p. 412-413. 



INDEX 



A PAGE 

All-India Women's Conference 

33, 36 
Ambedkar, Dr. Bhim Rao 

53, 66-73, 79 

differences with Gandhi 69 

renounced Hinduism 70, 71 

Azariah, The Rt. Rev. V. S. 4 

B 

Bibliography 219-221 

Bielby, Miss Elizabeth 104 

Bombay 13-19 

Brayne, F. L. 80, 97 

British influence 20-21, 27 



Carruthers, Lyman B., M.D. 4 

Christian approach to India 196 

Christian population, statistics of 

172, 218 

Christian Unity desired 156-157 
movements towards 185-188 

Church, the Christian 
in a city 163-164 

in a village 165-167, 174 

in civic life 180-181 

missionary work of 192-194 
organization of 174-178 

on the mission field 170 

Church, The Indian defined 

170-171 

Church of India, Burma and 
Ceylon 177-178 

Church organizations federated 
South India United Church 

176-177 
United Church of Northern 

India 177 

Lutheran Churches 177 

Clough, Dr. J. E. 58 

Cochrane, Dr. R. G. 118 

Colleges in India 

138, 141-146, 154-155 
why maintain? 159-162 

women's 138-146 

Communal System 23, 199-201 

Constitution, The new 27-29 



D PAGE 

Doctors, Indian Christian 127 

missionary 104-105, 109-110 
women 104-105 

Dornakal 167, 193 

E 

Education, adult 85-88 

agricultural schools 90-92 

coeducation 146 

for women 138-146 

higher Christian 131-162 

pioneers in 132, 134 

religious 191 

see Colleges 

Educational system, beginnings of 

133 

Evangelistic work in hospitals 113 



Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand 
25-26, 29, 53, 64-65, 68-69, 202- 

203 

George V, visit to India 13-15 
George VI, coronation festivities 

15-19 

Giving, Christian 166, 182-185 
Group action among Untouchables 

58-59 
H 

Health standards 88-89, 114 

Hinduism, responsible for 
untouchability? 53-55 



Jones, E. Stanley 

K 

Katpadi Institute 
Karma, doctrine of 



4, 153 



92 
56 



Laubach, Dr. Frank C. 82, 86-87 
Leadership, Indian, in education 

136-137 

in church life 175-176, 178-180 
Lepers 115-118 

Liberals 30 

Lindsay Commission 149-151 



223 



224 



MOVING MILLIONS 



PAGE 

Literacy, need of in villages 81-83 
statistics 181-182, 218 

M 

Marquis of Lothian 161-162 

Mass Movements 58, 62-64 

Medical training 123-126 

Medical work 102-130 

government agencies 107-108 

hospitals 110-114 

maternity cases 112 

public health campaigns 120-121 

see Doctors 

Missionary work, three stages of 

167-169 

Moga, school at 83 

Mohan, story of 155-156 

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 

22-24 

Moslems 31, 74, 200, 206, 213 
Mott, Dr. J. R. 153, 188 

N 

Nationalities in India 15, 17-19 
Nationalists 24-25 

attitude toward Christianity 

180, 197-198 
National Christian Council 

178-180, 188, 192 
National Congress 25-27 

Nehru, Jawaharlal 29-30, 79, 207 
Nursing profession 122-123 

O 

Oliver, Belle Chone, M.D. 3 

P 

Peaceful Picketing 35-36 

Pickett, Bishop J. Waskom 3, 189 

Poem, With Open Heart 12 

R 

Rajahs 28 

Reddy, Dr. Muthulakshmi 36 

Religions 172, 218 

Rice, C. Herbert; Mrs. Mary C. 4 
Roman Catholics 172-174 

Rural India 75-101 

a village scene 75-77 



changes in 
economic uplift 
health in 
literacy, need of 
schools in 



PAGE 
77-81 

89-90, 92-94 
88 

81-83 
83-85 



Sangli movable school 91 

Sarda Act 32-33 

Scudder, Dr. Ida 120, 144 

Scudder Memorial Hospital 102-103 
Self-government 22-25 

Simon Commission 24 

Statistical tables 172, 181, 217-218 
Student Christian Movement 

157-158 

Superstitions 98-99 

Swain, Dr. Clara 37, 104 

Syrian Christians 172-173 



Tuberculosis 



118-119 



U 



Untouchables 39, 

characteristics of 

effect of Christianity on 

59-64, 

facing a choice 

group action among 

names for 

numbers and location 
Untouchability 
occupations 

origins of 



42-74 
49-51 

73-74 

71-74 

58 

43-44 

51-52 

44 

47 

45-47 



Van Doren, Alice B 3 

Villages 

Indian Christian 94-96, 100 

proportion of inhabitants 167 

W 

Warner, Gertrude Leggett 3 

Women's Colleges 138-146 

Women doctors, see Medical work 
Women, prominent Indian 

32-39, 147-148 
Women, rural 96-97 



a ~w 10 76 11 78 12 80 13 82 




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